"The group of Nines", i.e. the Enneads, a work by Plotinus (al-Shaikh al-Yunani, q.v.) in 54 books, arranged and edited by his pupil Porphyry (Firfuriyus, q.v.) into 6 groups or sets of 9 (enna) on the ground that according to the Pythagorean theory of number 9 is the perfect number. The importance of the Enneads cannot be overestimated in Muslim Philosophy, for the "Theology of Aristotle" (Uthulujiya Aristatalis, q.v.) which was ascribed by the Muslim philosophers to Aristotle as his genuine work was really the running paraphrases of the eight sections of the last 3 "sets" of this work of Plotinus. Muslim philosophy, thus, came to be much dominated by Neoplatonic doctrine and it took very long before the purer Peripateticism, i.e. the philosophy of Aristotle came to surface. See also Uthulujiya Aristatalis. (online text)
Implication (S. Afnan, Avicenna: His Life and Works, 93). (AnAc)
Detailed, detail (pl. taf?ilat). (AnAc)
Seale translates as "delegation", but sees it as equivalent to 'free will'. Normally used as opposite of jabr. Fawwa?a literally means entrust, to give full power, authorize, delegate. Imam 'Ali uses the term as saying: "man's freedom is between jabr and tafwid", Kanz al-'Ummal, 1: 313; al-Ash'ari also uses, see his Maqalat, 1: 40-1. See also Watt, Free Will ..., mufawwidah. (AnAc)
The consequent, i.e. that clause of a conjunctive conditional or hypothetical proposition (al-qadiyat al-shartiyat [al-muttasilah], q.v.) which follows the antecedent (muqaddam, q.v.), e.g. the clause "the ground shall be wet" in the statement, "If it rains, the ground shall be wet."
Thales (c.640 -c. 546 B.C.), the first who made name as a philosopher in Greek philosophy. See Thalis al-Malti.
Manifestation, theophany (Ibn 'Arabi). (AnAc)
Manifestations, theophanies (Ibn 'Arabi). (AnAc)
Catharsis, separation (from imperfections). (AnAc)
????? ??????? Tajsim al-amal
"Corporealisation or embodiment of actions", the view in Muslim eschatology that mans god or bad deeds would appear in life after death in bodily forms, beautiful or ugly, and bear witness for or against him.
Subalternation, i.e. the relation between a universal proposition and a particular proposition having the same subject and predicate and of the same quality; the universal proposition in this pair is sometimes called muhkam lahu and the particular proposition muhkam bihi or muhkam. See also al-qadiyatan al-mutadakhilatan.
Expansion of a body, e.g. of water into steam; one of the four kinds of (harakah fil-kamm, q.v.).
??????? ???????? al-tarkib al-ittihadi
The organic composition of parts into a whole so that the parts, apart from the whole of which they are the parts, have no independent existence of their own -like the composition of matter (maddah or hayula, q.v.) and form (surah, q.v.) in a concrete particular thing or that of differentia (fasl, q.v.) and genus (jins, q.v.) in the definition of a thing (al-hadd al-tamm, q.v.); opposed to al-tarkib al-indimami, see below.
??????? ????????? al-tarkib al-in?imami
The mechanical composition of parts into a whole so that the parts have their own independent existence apart form the whole of which they are the parts -like the conglomeration of bricks, mortar, wood, iron, etc. into a house or into any other mechanical aggregate; opposed to al-tarkib al-ittihadi (q.v.).
??????? ??????? al-tarkib al-mufa??al
The fallacy of composition; see mughalatah tarkib al-mufa??al.
An infinite succession of events or an infinite regress of causes, both of which, according to Muslim philosophers, are logically inadmissible. Sometimes the term is used to denote the infinite succession or regress in an argument which brings it to a logical impasse. See al-burhan al-ta?biqi and muqati.
Contrariety or the relation of contrary opposition between two universal propositions having the same subject and predicate but differing in quality. See al-qa?iyatan al-mut?addatan.
?????? ???????? al-ta?add al-tahtani
Sub-contrariety or the relation of sub-contrary opposition between two particular propositions having the same subject and predicate, but differing in quality. See also al-qa?iyatan al-dakhilatan taht al-ta?add.
??????? ??????? al-tarif al-haqiqi
The real definition of a thing, i.e. the definition which gives us the essence or the most essential characteristics of a thing like the definition of man as a rational animal. See also al-hadd al-tamm.
????? ??????? ???????? tarif al-majhul bil-majhul
Ignotum per ignotius, i.e. the definition of the unknown by the unknown, which in fact is no definition. Every definition which makes uses of obscure language so that it becomes necessary to define further the very terms used in that definition is an example of tarif al-majhul bil-majhul.
Taken generally, the term means causation; but, more specifically, it denotes the mode of inference or reasoning in which we proceed from the cause or the universal and deduce the effect or the particular from it. See also al-burhan al-limi.
Quantitative, i.e. that which pertains to the size, figure, volume or dimensions of a thing or to its number and countable parts.
The Interpretation: The Arabic title given sometimes to the second of Aristotles books on logic. See Bari Irminiyas.
????? ?????? taf?il al-murakkab
The fallacy of division; see mughalatah taf?l al-murakkab.
The relation of opposition between two concepts or states which cannot be asserted of a thing or an individual at the same time and in the same respect. This is of four kinds: (1) contradiction (taqabul fil-salb wal-ijab, q.v.) (2) contrariety (taqabul al-diddain, q.v.) (3) correlation (taqabul al-tadayuf, q.v.) and (4) the relation between privation and possession (taqabul bain al-adm wal-milkah, q.v.) -all considered by Aristotle to be different forms on contrariety.
????? ??? ????? ??????? taqabul bain al-adm wal-milkah
The relation of opposition between privation and possession like that between rest and motion. It is different from the opposition of between two contraries (taqabul al-diddain, q.v.): in the case of two contraries the existence of both is necessarily presupposed but no such presupposition is necessary in the case of that which is privative -rest is merely the non-existence of motion. Moreover the two contraries like hot and cold have two separate causes: they are not the co-effects of the same cause, whereas that which is privative and that which is not so, like rest and motion, are due to the working and not-working of the same cause.
????? ??????? taqabul al-ta?ayuf
The relation opposition between two correlatives, like that between the father and the son or that between the teacher and the pupil; though the one term necessarily implies the other, the two cannot obtain in the same individual at the same time in the same respect.
????? ?????? taqabul al-?iddain
The relation of opposition between two contraries such between white and black or between hotness and coldness, see also diddan.
????? ?? ????? ???????? taqabul fil-salb wal-ijab
The relation of opposition between affirmation, and negation i.e. between two contradictories such as between A and not-A or between existence and non-existence; see also naqidan.
Antecedence or priority as opposed to consequence or posteriority (taakhkhur). It is of various kinds: antecedence in time (taqaddum bil-zaman, q .v.); antecedence in order (taqaddum bil-martabah, q.v.); antecedence in status (taqaddum bil-sharf, q.v.); antecedence by nature or constitution (taqaddum bill-tab, q.v.); and antecedence in existence (taqaddum bil-dhat, q.v.).
???? ?????? taqaddum bil-dhat
Antecedence in existence so that the non-existence of the antecedent necessarily leads to the non-existence of the consequent but no the other way around, like the antecedence of the cause to effect or of condition to the conditioned or of primary act to the secondary or generated act (muwalladah, q.v.), e.g. the movement of a finger is antecedent to the movement of the ring on the finger: the latter is necessarily presupposed by the former but not vice versa.
???? ??????? taqaddum bil-zaman
Antecedence in time, i.e. the condition of being earlier in a succession of events, e.g. the antecedence of Socrates to Plato or of the Prophet Moses to the Prophet Jesus. Considered from the point of view of the series of past, present and future this antecedence in its very literal sense.
???? ?????? taqaddum bil-sharf
Antecedence in status or excellence, e.g. of the learned to the ignorant or the believer to the non-believer; this kind of antecedence always presupposes a value-judgement, i.e. the superiority of one thing or individual to the other with reference to a norm or standard.
???? ?????? taqaddum bill-tab
Antecedence as given in the very nature or constitution of things so that the exclusion (irlifa) of the antecedent necessarily leads to the exclusion of the consequent (mutaqaddam alaih) but not vice versa, like the antecedence of number one to number two or that of lines to a geometrical figure, say a triangle; the notion of number "two" or "a triangle" presupposes respectively the notion of number "one" or that of "lines", but not the other way round.
???? ???????? taqaddum bil-martabah
Antecedence in order; it is of three kinds: first, the antecedence of one thing to another with reference to its position in space, e.g. of Baghdad to Kufah, but this is relative to the place form where one starts ones journey; secondly, the antecedence of one thing to another with reference to a goal or destination when we say that Median is nearer to Mecca than Baghdad; and thirdly, the antecedence of one thing to the other in the order of nature, e.g. it may be said that in the order of nature animality is antecedent to humanity not only with reference to time but also with reference to extension or denotation, but this notion of antecedence too is relative and not absolute for humanity being a more specialised form of animality is antecedent to it with reference to intension or connotation.
Presentation of arguments in a controversy in a logical form so that they necessarily leads to the desired conclusion.
????? ???????? taqsim bil-tanqi?
Division by dichotomy: a logical division of a class into two contradictory sub-classes, then one of the sub-classes into tow contradictory sub-classes and so on and so forth step by step; considered in logic to be a flawless division of a "class" for at each step of the division the two contradictory sub-classes are mutually exclusive (maniat al jam, q.v.) as well as totally exhaustive (maniat al-khuluww, q.v.).
Compression or condensation of a body, e.g. of steam vapours into water; one of the four kinds of harakah fil-kamm (q.v.).
Creation of the natural beings which are liable to corruption (fasad) and decay; it is an act of creation which is through the intermediary of matter, time and motion and one which pre-supposes causal priority; see also ibda.
Analogy, i.e. a mode of inference in which we reason from the resemblance of two things in some respects to their resemblance in some more respects.
Contradictory or the relation of contradictory opposition between two propositions having the same subject and predicate but differing both in quality and quantity; see also al-qa?iyatan al-mutaqabilatan bil-tanaqud.
??????? ?? ????????? al-tanaqu? fil-mahsurat
Opposition by subalteration, i.e. the relation between two propositions which have the same subject and predicate and the same quality but differ in quantity, like the relation between "No men are perfect" (al-salibat al-kulliyah, q.v.) and "some men are not perfect" (al-salibat al-juziyah, q.v.) see also al-qadiyatan al-mutadakhilatan.
The generation of secondary action or movement from a primary action or movement, for example the movement of the key in the keyhole by the movement of the hand; see also muwallidah and mubasharah.
The apprehension of some particular object or situation at the animal level so that there is no reference to the universal or conceptual in this kind of cognitive experience; see also al-quwwat al-mutawahhimah.
Dictionary - Islamic Philosophy Home - E-mail - Guest Book
Page last modified on 2008-01-04.
Page url is: www.muslimphilosophy.com/pd/d-3.htm
Dictionary of Muslim philosophy (html version) is © Copyrighted 2004 by Islamic Philosophy Online, Inc. A not-for-profit organization dedicated to the study of Islamic philosophy. All rights reserved worldwide. This dictionary may not be copied in part or total without the express written permission of the copyright holder. See copyright information.
Click Here for an Internet Citation Guide.
Page created on: 2001-07-02