--Sha

??? sha'n

Mode (Fazlur Rahman, Mulla Sadra, 108, line 27).

??? shakhs

A term used in logic to denote an individual, i.e. one member of the class. According to the Ikhwan al-Safa’ (q.v.), shakhs is also one of the predicables, the sixth besides the traditional five predicables (al-alfaz al-khamsah).

??????? ??????? al-shartiyat al-muttasilah

The conditional proposition consisting of two clauses or propositions called antecedent (muqaddam, q.v.) and consequent (tali, q.v.) related to each other conditionally like the statement: "If the sun shines, it is day"; corresponds to what is named as hypothetical propositions in modern logic. See also al-qadiyat al-shartiyah.

??????? ???????? al-shartiyat al-munfasilah

The conditional disjunctive proposition consisting of two clauses or propositions related to each other as two alternatives or disjunctives which mutually exclude each other like the statement: "Either this number is even, or it is odd"; corresponds to disjunctive proposition in modern logic. See also al-qadiyat al-shartiyah.

????? al-Shi‘r

The Arabic title given to Aristotle's Poetica; generally considered, in the Arab logical tradition, to be the last part of his logical Organon (al-Arghanun, q.v.) dealing with the fine art of stirring the imagination and soul of the audience through the magic of words. See also Buyutiqa. (online text)

??? shakl (pl. ashkal)

"Figure" of a syllogism (qiyas, q.v.), i.e. the form of a syllogism as determined by the position of the middle term (al-hadd al-ausat, q.v.) in the major and minor premises. Muslim philosophers following Aristotle recognized mostly only three figures; see below.

????? ????? al-shakl al-awwal

The first figure of syllogism (qiyas, q.v.), i.e. the form of syllogism in which the middle term occurs as a subject in the first, i.e. the major premise and as a predicate in the second, i.e. the minor premise; this is considered the perfect type of syllogism and Aristotle even included the moods (durub, q.v.) of the fourth figure in this form of syllogism. See also al-qiyas al-kamil.

????? ?????? al-shakl al-thalith

The third figure of syllogism, i.e. the form of syllogism in which the middle term occurs as subject in both of the premises.

????? ?????? al-shakl al-thani

The second figure of syllogism, i.e. the form of syllogism in which the middle term occurs as predicate in both of the premises.

?? shamm

Smell sensation, a power placed in the two protruding lumps of the front brain which are like the two small nipple-like bodies. The odour of a smelling object gets mixed with the air around it, which thus assumes the quality of that odour. This air naturally inhaled by us reaches, through the nasal passages the above-mentioned two protruding lumps of the front brain, which, stimulated by this air, give us the smell sensation. This power is stronger in animals than in men.

????? ??????? al-shauq al-tabi‘i

An inherent tendency in the natural object to attain to its: perfect natural form, whereby that which was merely potential in it becomes actual.

????? ?????? al-Shaikh al-akbar

"The Grand Master", the title given by his followers to Muhyi al-Din ibn ‘Arabi (560-638/1165-1240), the greatest speculative genius in Islamic mysticism. Search Google. Also Ibn 'Arabi society

????? ?????? al-Shaikh al-Ra’is

"The Chief Master" of the learned, a title of honour given to the illustrious Ibn Sina (370-428/980-1037), the philosopher, physiologist, physician, mathematician, astronomer, etc. –the greatest philosopher and scientist of Islam and, indeed, one of the greatest of all races, places and times. See our Website.

????? ???????? al-Shaikh al-Yunani

"The Greek Master", a title given by the Muslim historians of philosophy and religion (particularly by al-Shahrastani) to Plotinus or Plotin (c. 203-270 C.E.), the greatest expositor of the system of Neoplatonism, a philosophy which is a remarkable synthesis of Platonism, Aristotelianism, Stoicism, etc. The influence of Plotinus on Muslim philosophy in general and mysticism and "philosophy of illuminationism" (al-hikmat al-ishraqiyah, q.v.) in Islam in particular is immense. It may be noted that the work the "theology of Aristotle" ascribed by the Muslim philosophers to Aristotle as one of his genuine works was in reality paraphrase of the philosophy of Plotinus. According to Plotinus, all reality consists of a series of emanations from the One, the First Principle (al-mabda’ al-awwal) and the Necessary Being (wajib al-wujud, q.v.). The first emanation is that of Nous (al-‘aql al-awwal, q.v.); the second that of Psyche (ruh). At the end of the series of emanations is found matter. Man is partly in the realm of spirit and partly in the sphere of matter. All this and more was incorporated by the Muslim philosophers in one way or the other in the development of their own philosophical systems. See Uthulujiya Aristatalis and al-Aflatuniyat al-Muhathah. Search Google.

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