????? bariqah

A flash of illumination or inspiration from God in the soul of man, which does not tarry long.

 ???? ?????? Bari Irminiyas

De Interpretatione (The Interpretation), the title of the second of Aristotle’s book on logic, also named al-‘Ibarah or al-Tafsir; it deals with the formation of different kinds of propositions through the combination of simple ideas or terms.

 ??????? Balinus

Apollonius: many other Arabic variants of this name to be met with in Muslim works on the history of philosophers and scientists are: Abulluniyus, Abuluniyus, Ablinas and Ablus. Two persons named Apollonius were known to the Muslim thinkers:

    1. Apollonius of Perge (c. 200 B.C.), which name appears almost invariably with epithet al-Najjar, i.e. "the Carpenter"; a Greek mathematician of third century B.C., whose Conics (al-Makhrutat) and other works were translated into Arabic and commented upon.
    2. A sage whose personality is based on the Greek tradition about Apollonius of Tyana, a neo-Pythagorean philosopher of 1st century C.E. He is known as a hakim, i.e. a philosopher but often also called sahib al-talismat, i.e. a magician and miracle-worker.

 ??? Babus

Pappus: Greek geometer of late 3rd and early 4th century C.E. His chief work: "Mathematical Collection", was known to the Muslim philosophers and scientists; now extant only in incomplete form.

 ?????? badihat

Self-evident data or premisses, i.e. propositions the truth of which is open to direct inspection and requires no appeal to other evidence, like the statement that a part is les than the whole of which it is the part or that two contradictories (naqidan, q.v.) cannot obtain in the same individual at the same time.

 ????? badihi

That to which we give our assent without any question or investigation; opposed to nazari.

 ???? barzakh

Lit. "the intervening space", but technically the term denotes the "world of Ideas" which is considered intermediary between the material or phenomenal world and the world of pure spirits (mufariqat, q.v.) as well as of God. In the philosophy of Illuminationism (al-hikmat al-ishraqiyah, q.v.) barzakh means simply boy as opposed to light (nur.). Barzakhs, thus are dark bodies which become illuminated through the light received from the spirit. The heavenly spheres being bodily are also barzakhs, but they are living barzakhs as compared to the physical bodies of this world which are dead barzakhs.

 ????? Buruqlus

Proclus (410-485 B.C.): Neoplatonic philosopher and saint, regarded as the last great teacher of (the Hegel) of Neoplatonism. He wrote extensive commentaries on Plato’s and Aristotle’s works. His Elements of Theology, a work on Platonic theology, partly translated into Arabic and re-arranged under the title Kitab al-khair al-Mahd (q.v.) was ascribed by the Muslim philosophers to Aristotle.

 ???????? Barminidus

Parmenides (6th –5th century B.C.): head of the Eleatic school of Greek philosophy; classical exponent of monism. Reality for him is Being which is a plenum filling all space and reaming constant. Empty space or void cannot be. Non-Being, becoming, or creation is impossible. Multiplicity, change and time are illusions. Zeno (Zainun al-Akbar, q.v.), his famous pupil, offered a defence of this block-reality philosophy in terms of his famous paradoxes.

 ????? burhan

The term is used in philosophy in various slightly different senses: (1) mode of argumentation; (2) the argument itself; and (3) the manifest evidence or proof of a convincing argument –in this last sense the term is also used in the Qur’an (4:174; 12:24).

 ??????? al-Burhan

The Arabic title given to Aristotle’s fourth book on logic, viz. Analytica Posteriora or the Second Analytics. See Analutiqa Thani.

 ??????? ????? al-burhan al-inni

The mode of reasoning which proceeds from effect to cause; as "a proof that a thing is", it starts from the particular fact which is given or is perceived and infers the cause or reason of its existence; also called technically istidlal (q.v.) as opposed to ta‘lil (q.v.)

 ??????? ???????? al-burhan al-tatbiqi

A mode of argument employed to disprove the possibility of the infinite regress of causes as, for example, in the cosmological argument for the existence of God; more generally the term denotes the impossibility of the infinite series of any successive sequence of events in the past or in the future.

 ??????? ??????? al-burhan al-khatabi

The rhetorical argument based on premisses of the kind of maqbulat (q.v.) and maznunat (q.v.). See also al-qiyas al-khatabi.

 ??????? ???????? al-burhan al-siddiqin

"The argument of the truthful ones", i.e. a kind of teleological argument employed by the prophets and saints, which much like al-burhan al-inni (q.v.), starts from the signs of God, manifest in the natural phenomena and in men’s own selves, and thereby establish the existence of God.

 ??????? ?????? al-burhan al-qati‘

Decisive proof or apodictic demonstration. See al-burhan al-mutlaq.

 ??????? ????? al-burhan al-limi

The mode of reasoning which procees from a cause to its effect. As "a proof why a thing is", it starts from the cause or the universal and deduces the effect or the particular from it: the cause here is not merely the efficient cause (al-‘illat al-fa‘iliyah, q.v.) but also the formal cause (al-‘illat al-suriyah, q.v.), i.e. the reason why a thing is; technically also called ta‘lil (q.v.) as opposed to istidlal (q.v.).

 ??????? ?????? al-burhan al-mutlaq

Absolute proof or apodictic demonstration of a conclusion in a logical syllogism from propositions or premisses which are certain and self-evident, i.e. such as belong to the category of yaqiniyat (q.v.)

 ??????? ????????? al-basa’it al-ustuqussiyah

"The elemental simples" , i.e. the four elements: fire, air, water and earth. See also al-arkan al-arb‘ah and ustuqussat.

 ??????? ??????? al-basa’it al-mjarradah

"The abstract simples," an expression used by Mulla Sadra (979-1050/1571-1640)[website - Biography] to denote the intelligences and souls of the celestial spheres. See also al-‘uqul al-‘asharah.

 ?????? ?????? al-basait al-‘aqli

"Conceptually simple", i.e. of which it is impossible to think that it could be divided even mentally, for example a point in geometry.

 ??? basar

"Sight": it is power placed in the two hollow nerves which meet each other in the brain; thence they separate and go to the two eyeballs. By this power are perceived rays of light, colours, shapes, sizes, motions, the beautiful and the ugly and other things. There are, however, three different theories of vision discussed by the Muslim philosophers.

    1. According to the theory labeled as Platonic theory of vision; a ray of light emanating from the eye falls on the surface of an object, and this enables us to see it. Ibn Sina, however, considers this theory untenable; for were it true we should be able to see things in the dark as we see them in the light.
    2. According to the second theory, it is the formative faculty (al-quwwat al-mutasawwirah, q.v.) itself which, so to say, goes out to the object to meet it, and hence we see it. This theory too is untenable; for were it true we would not be able to distinguish the objects which are absent from those which are present.
    3. The third theory, which is called the Aristotelian theory of vision, holds that whenever light falls on an object its shape transmitted through the various transparent media is imprinted on the vitreous humour of the eye, and hence we see it.

 ??????? (???????)? Batlamiyus (al-Qaludhi)

Ptolemy(the son of Claudius): Astronomer, mathematician, geographer and physicist of Alexandria of 2nd century C.E.; know to the Muslim scientists and philosophers mostly for his notable astronomical work Meagle Syntaxis (Grand Composition) generally called Almagest from the title of its translation in Arabic. The first know Arabic translation was made by al-hajjaj ibn Yusuf ibn Matar (fl. between 170/786 and 218/833), and it was followed by many other translations and also commentaries. Muslim philosophers’ grandiose construction of emanationistic cosmologies (nine celestial spheres with their souls and intelligences –the lower emanating from the immediately higher) is largely based on the Ptolemaic system of astronomy. According to this system, stars, the sun and (other) six planets each studded in a celestial sphere revolve around the earth, the centre of the universe. Muslim scholars studied Ptolemy’s works on geography, optics and the theory of music with great interest. Sarton considers his influence upon later times, until the middle of 16th century, second only to Aristotle.

 ????? Buqrat

Hippocrates of Cos (fl. 5th century B.C.): "the Father of Medicine", Greek physician, one of the greatest of all times. All his major works were translated into Arabic as early as 2nd –3rd/8th –9th century and keenly studied by Muslim physicians, most of whom also happened to be philosophers.

 ???????? Buthaghuras

Pythagoras of Samos (c. 572-497 B.C.), the head of Pythagoreanism. See Fithaghuras.

 ???? ???? Buda Yusuf

A name sometimes given by Muslim philosophers to Gautama Buddha (563?-c. 483 B.C.), the Indian philosopher and founder of Buddhism.

 ?????? Butiqa

The Arabicised title of Aristotle’s Poetica; see below.

 ???????  Buyutiqa

The Arabicised title of Aristotle’s Poetica or the Poetics, (the other variant being Butiqa), in Arabic entitled also as al-Shi‘r; generally considered by Muslim philosophers to be one of Aristotle’s books on logic, i.e. the last part of the logical Organon (al-Arghanun, q.v.) which deals with the fine art of stirring the imagination and soul of the audience through the magic of words. (online text)

Transliteration: A a I i U u ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?? ’  [ ] ? ???? ????? ?? ja?kum

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