??????? ??????? al-salibat al-juz’iyah

The particular affirmative proposition; see al-qadiyat al-salibat al-juz’iyah.

 ??????? ?????? al-salibat al-kulliyah

The universal negative proposition; see al-qadiyat al-salibat al-kulliyah.

 ?? ??????? Sirr al-Asrar

Secreta Secretorum, an apocryphal work ascribed by Muslim scholars to Aristotle (Aristatalis, q.v.). It is a work on folklore, physiognomy and dietetics and is superstitious in its tone rather than scientific; hence its wide popularity in medieval times. It was also well known in the Western Caliphate, for a reference to it is found in al-‘Iqd al-Farid (The Unique Necklace), an anthology by Ibn ‘Abd Rabbih (d. 328/940) of Cordova. The first Arabic translation of the work from Greek original is ascribed to Yahya ibn Batriq (3rd/9th century C.E.).

 ???? sarmad

Absolute eternity, i.e. eternity without beginning (azal, q.v.) and also without end (abad, q.v.); sometimes considered time as absolutely fixed and unchanging. Sarmad is distinguished from dahr (q.v.) by maintaining that whereas dahr encompasses zaman (q.v.) sarmad encompasses dahr. Sarmad is used with reference to the relation between the two eternals (as, for example, between the essence of God and His attributes); dahr with reference to the relation between the eternal and the changing (as, for example, between God and the world); and zaman with reference to the relation between the two changing series (as, for example, between the movement of the heavenly spheres and the phenomenal changes on earth). See also zaman.

 ????? sufustah

Sophism, i.e. a piece of false reasoning which is employed. with the intention of deceiving somebody.

 ?????? Suqratis

Socrates (c. 470-399 B.C.): Greek philosopher, the teacher of Plato whose Dialogues represent the essential philosophical teachings of the master. As Socrates did not himself write anything on philosophy, his influence on Muslim philosophical thought was only through Plato.

 ??? sam‘

a power placed in the nerves spread out in the cavity of the ear-hole (meatus) by which sounds are perceived. Sound is a vibratory movement of the outer air which is transmitted to the air in the ear-hole through impact. This transmitted vibration in the inner air stimulates the auditory nerves resulting in the sensation of hearing.

 ???????? Sinibliqus

Simplicus : Greek philosopher, one of the last Neoplatonists. After the closing of Plato’s Academy in 529 C.E. he sought refuge at the court of ChosroŽs and remained there until about 533. He wrote commentaries on a number of Aristotle’s works, viz. De Coelo, Physica, De Anima and Categoriae.

 ??? ?????? ????? su’ i‘tibar al-haml

The fallacy of secundum quid; see mughalatah su’ i‘tibar al-haml.

 ??? sur

The quantifier of a proposition indicated by the expressions. like "all", "some", "not all", "not some", "one", or "not one" specifying the quantity of a proposition; such a proposition is named al-qadiyat al-mussawarah (q.v.) or al-qadiyat al-mahsurah (q.v.) as opposed to al-qadiyat al-muhmalah (q.v.).

 ???????? Sufistiqa

Sophistici Elenchi, Aristotle’s sixth book on logic, also entitled as al-Maghalit or al-Hikmat al-Muwwahmah (q.v.) in Arabic; it deals with the fallacies of logical reasoning, intentional or otherwise.

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