????? natijah

The conclusion in a syllogism (qiyas, q.v.) which necessarily follows from the two given propositions taken together, i.e. the major premise (kubra, q.v.) and the minor premise (sughra, q.v.) because of their common link (qarinah) through a middle term (al-hadd al-ausat, q.v.). The predicate (mahmul, q.v.) of the conclusion is called the major term (al-hadd al-akbar, q.v.) and the subject (maudu‘, q.v.) the minor term (al-hadd al-asghar, q.v.). The conclusion, because it necessarily follows the two given propositions, is also sometimes called ridf, i.e. the consequent.

 ??????? ??? ???????? al-natijah ghair al-muta‘alliqah

The fallacy of ignoratio elenchi; see mughalatat al-natijah ghair al-muta‘alliqah.

 ??????? ?? ???? al-natijah ma yuram

Petitio principii or begging the question; see al-musadarah ‘ala’l-matlub al-awwal.

 ??? nahw

mode. (AnAc)

 ?????? ??????? al-nisbat al-hukmiyah

The relation between the subject (mahkum ‘alaihi, q.v.) and the predicate (mahkum bihi, q.v.), i.e. the copula of a logical proposition, more ususally called ribatah.

 ???? nusbah

Lit. "situation", but technically the category of position or posture; see wad‘.

 ???? nizam

order. (AnAc)

 ????? ??????? al-nafs al-ammarah

“The commanding soul”, i.e. the soul which is wont to enjoin evil, an expression used in the Holy Qur’an (12:53) for the lowest stage in the spiritual growth of man, the stage when the low desires and animal passions rule the mind of man and he succumbs to his carnal desires like a brute. See also al-nafs al-lawwamah and al-nafs al-mutma’innah.

 ????? ????????? al-nafs al-insaniyah

The human mind or soul. It possesses all the faculties and powers of the vegetable mind (al-nafs al-nabatiyah, q.v.) as well as those of the animal mind (al-nafs al-hayawaniyah, q.v.), but in addition hs the rational faculty (al-quwwat al-‘aqliyah, q.v.) peculiar to itself which has two forms: one theoretical or speculative (nazari) which enables man to have abstract thinking and the other practical (‘amali) on which morality depends.

 ????? ????????? al-nafs al-hayawaniyah

The animal soul or mind; it possesses all the powers or faculties of the vegetable mind (al-nafs al-nabatiyah, q.v.), viz. the nutritive power (al-quwwat al-ghadhiyah, q.v.), the power of growth (al-quwwat al-namiyah, q.v.) and the power of reproduction (al-quwwat al-muwallidah, q.v.). In addition it, possesses two powers or faculties peculiar to itself, i.e. motive faculty (al-quwwat al-muharrikah, q.v.) and cognitive faculty (al-quwwat al-mudrikah, q.v.) each one of which has many kinds of sub-classes.

 ????? ??????? al-nafs al-falakiyah

The celestial or heavenly soul; the view that celestial spheres, i.e. stars and planets, have souls and intelligences was subscribed to by almost all the Muslim philosophers, for it had the overwhelming authority of Aristotle behind it. See al-‘uqul al-‘asharah.

 ????? ?????? al-nafs al-kulliyah

The universal soul inclusive of all the individual souls; corresponds to the Psyche of Plotinus (Fulutin, q.v. or al-Shaikh al-Yunani, q.v.).

 ????? ??????? al-nafs al-lawwamah

“The self-accusing soul”: an expression in the Holy Qur’an (75:2) for the second stage in the spiritual and moral growth of man at which the slightest departure from the path of rectitude at once brings the pricks of conscience. See also al-nafs al-ammarah and al-nafs al-mutma’innah.

 ????? ???????? al-nafs al-mutma’innah

“The soul at peace”, an expression used in the Holy Qur’an (89:27) in connection with the three stages in the spiritual development of man: (1) the animal stage of al-nafs al-ammarah (q.v.); (2) the human stage of al-nafs al-lawwamah (q.v.) and (3) the heavenly or spiritual stage of al-nafs al-mutma’innah. At this last stage, man because of a perfectly righteous life, is rewarded by God with an unspeakable peace of mind, almost a state of paradise on earth -hence the Qur’anic verses: “And thou, O soul at peace (al-nafs al-mutma’innah)! return to thy Lord well pleased with Him and He will pleased with thee. So enter thou among My chosen servants and enter thou My Garden" (89:27-30).

 ????? ???????? al-nafs al-nabatiyah

"The vegetable soul or mind" possessed of three powers or faculties: (1) nutritive power (al-quwwat al-ghadhiyah, q.v.)by which it changes another body into the form of the animal body into which it resides; (2) the power of growth (al-quwwat al-namiyah, q.v.) by which the animal body increases without changing its form till it attains full maturity; and power of reproduction (al-quwwat al-muwallidah, q.v.) which draws from the body a part similar to itself in potentiality capable of producing other bodies similar to it in actuality.

 ???? nuqlah

Change or movement of a body from one place to another, technically called harakah fi’l-ain (q.v.).

 ?????? naqidan

Two contradictories like existence and non-existence or Muslim and non-Muslim; the two contradictories cannot both be true not can they both be false, for they are mutually exclusive (mani‘at al-jam‘, q.v.) as well as totally exhaustive (mani‘at al-khuluww, q.v.) as distinguished from the contraries (diddan, q.v.) which are merely mutually exclusive. The two contradictories like the two contrary states or qualities cannot obtain in one and the same individual at the same time. See also ’ijtima‘ al- naqidain.

 ???? ?????? naqid al-tali

The denial of consequent in the minor premise of a hypothetical syllogism (al-sharti al-muttasil, q.v.) leading to the denial of the antecedent in the conclusion, a valid mode of reasoning called the negative mode (Modus Tollens) of hypothetical syllogism; opposed to ‘ain al-tali (q.v.) which is a form of logical fallacy (see mughalatah wad‘ al-tali).

 ???? ?????? naqid al-muqaddam

Denial of antecedent, an invalid (‘aqim, q.v.) mode of reasoning which does not warrant any logical conclusion. See also mughalatah raf‘ al-muqaddam.

 ??? numuww

Growth of a body by assimilation of another body through the process of nourishment (al-quwwat al-ghadhiyah, q.v.); one of the four kinds of harakah fi’l-kamm (q.v.). See also al-nafs al-nabatiyah.

 ???????? al-Nawamis

The title of the Arabic translation by Hunain ibn Ishaq (d. 264/877) of Plato’s Dialogue the Laws considered to be the earliest extant classic of European jurisprudence.

 ??? (?????)? nau‘ (pl. anwa‘)

Species. As one of the predicables (see Isaghuji), nau‘ is a relatively smaller class which is included in a wider class called jins (q.v.), i.e. genus; e.g. the smaller class: "man" is included in the wider class: "animal". thus "man" is a species (nau‘) in relation to "animal" and "animal" is a genus (jins) in relation to "man". See also jins.

 ??? ??????? nau‘ al-’anwa‘

Lit. "species of species"; technically infima species, the lowest species of a classification which can no longer be divided into further sub-classes but only into individuals. In Aristotelian logic the individual himself is named as nau‘ al-’anwa‘; also called nau‘ al-safil.

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