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 ???? ?iddan

Two contraries like black and white or like sweet and bitter; the two contrary states or qualities cannot be true of one and the same thing or individual at the same time and in the same respect. To be distinguished from two contradictories (naqidan, q.v.): while the two contradictories are mutually exclusive (mani‘at al-jam‘, q.v.) as well as totally exhaustive (mani‘at al-khuluww, q.v.), two contraries are only mutually exclusive.

 ??? ?arb

Mood of a syllogism(qiyas q.v.), i.e. the form of a syllogism determined by the quality and quantity of the propositions used as major (al-muqaddamat al-kubra, q.v.) and minor (al-muqaddamat al-sughra, q.v.) premises.

 ?????? ???????? al-?urub al-tahani

The subaltern moods, i.e. the moods of syllogism in which a particular conclusion is drawn when a universal conclusion is really justified by the premises; these (in modern logic) are five in number: Barbari, Celaront, Cesaro, Camestros and Camenos.

 ?????? ??????? al-?urub al-taqwiyah

The moods of strengthened syllogism, i.e. those forms of syllogism in which one of the premises is unnecessarily stronger than what is required to prove the conclusion. Among them may be included Darapti, Felapton, Bramantip and Fesapo; in each case one of the premises is universal which even if it had been particular the conclusion would have remained the same.


 ?????? ?????? al-?urub al-‘aqim

Invalid moods of syllogism. Opposed to al-durub al-muntaj; see below.

 ?????? ?????? al-?urub al-muntaj

The valid moods of a syllogism which, considering the syllogism to be categorical (al-qiyas al-iqtirani, q.v.), are four in the first figure (al-shakl al-awwal, q.v.): Barbara, Celarent, Darii and Ferii; four in the second figure (al-shakl al-thani, q.v.): Cesare, Camestres, Festino and Baroco; and five in the third figure (al-shakl al-thalith, q.v.): Darapti, Disamis, Datisi, Felapton, Bocardo and Ferison; opposed to al-‘durub al-‘aqim (q.v.).


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