???? ?????????‘alam al-mufariqat

The world of the souls and intelligences of the celestial spheres; see al-‘uqul al-‘asharah.

 ???? ??????? al-‘Ibarah

De Interpretatione: the Arabic title of Aristotle’s second book on logic. See also Bari Irminiyas.

 ????? ????? al-‘adad al-fard

Prime number, i.e. a number having no integral factors except itself and unity –for example, 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, etc.

 ??? ‘adl

Obversion, i.e. deriving a propsition by way of an immediate inference from a given propsition without transposing its subject and predicate (as is done in ‘aks, q.v.) and without changing its quantity but merely by changing its quality which is done by negativising the original predicate, e.g. propositon "No men are non-mortal"; the former proposition is called ma‘adul minhu (q.v.) and the latter ma‘dul (q.v.).

 ??? ?????? ?????? ‘adm al-luzum bi’l-tab‘

The fallacy of non-sequitur, i.e. the one in which there is complete lak of logical connection between the premises advanced and the conclusion drawn. See also mughalatah ‘adm al-luzum bi’l-tab‘.

 ??? ‘ard (pl. a‘rad)

Accident. As one of the predicables (al-alfaz al-khamasa) ‘ard is that quality which adhere to a subject (maudu, q.v.), but–opposed to property –it neither constitutes its essense, nor does it necessarily flow form it, e.g. the color of man. According to the Peripatetics (al-Mashsha’un, q.v.), accidents may change, disappear, or be added, while substances (jauhar, q.v.) remains the same. Accident, thus, has no independent existence, but exists only in another being, a substance or another accident. According to the Mutakallimun, more particularly the Ash‘arites, however, an accident cannot exist in another accident but only in a substance. But no substance can ever exist apart form its qualities or accidents. Hence, the substance being inseparable from its accidents, like the latter, is also merely transitory, i.e. has only a momentary existence. Everything that exists, thus, consists of mere transitory units (atoms) having only a moment’s duration and needs must, therefore, be perpetually re-created by the will of God. See also al-fasl al-khass and al-fasl al-‘amm.

 ????? ‘asabiyah

A term made current by the great Muslim philosopher and sociologist, Ibn Khaldun (732/808/1332-1406), for the sense of common honor and loyalty which binds together the members of a family, clan, or tribe and thus is the cause of the solidarity of such institutions.

 ????? ‘Utarid

The planet Mercury or its sphere (falak); see also al-kawakib al-sayyarah.

 ????? ????? al-‘aql al-awwal

The first intelligence, i.e. the first effusion or emanation from God, the Necessary Being (al-wajib al-wujud) or the First Principle (al-mabda’ al-awwal). The existence of the first intelligence is possible in itself as well as necessary through the First Principle; further it knows its own essence as well as the essence of the First Principle. From its twofold existence and twofold knowledge springs, according to the Muslim Peripatetic philosophers like al-Farabi and Ibn Sina, the whole series of emanations, i.e. the nine celestial spheres with their nine intelligences as well as their nine souls. See also al-‘uqul al-‘asharah.

 ????? ?????? al-‘aql bi’l-fi‘l

Intellect in action or the actualised intellect which, through the illumination that it receives from the agent intellect al-‘aql al-fa‘‘al (q.v.), is activated into thinking upon the universal forms of objects as well as ultimate concepts.

 ????? ??????? al-‘aql bi’l-malakah

Habitual intellect; see al-‘aql al-mustafad.

 ????? ?????? al-‘aql al-‘amali

Practical reason or intellect which enables us to adopt the right course of action to attain what is useful and good.

 ????? ?????? al-‘aql al-fa‘‘al

The active intellect or the agent intellect, the lowest of the intelligences of the celestial spheres which gives "form" (surah, q.v.) to individual things, and so is called wahib al-suwar (q.v.), i.e. the giver of forms or dator formarum. Active intellect is continually in action and it rouses the material or potential intellect (al-‘aql al-hayulani, q.v. al-‘aql bi’lfi‘l, q.v.) from its state of latency by activating in it the thought of the universal forms and eternal truths. This transforms the material or potential intellect in to intellect in action (al-‘aql bi’l-fi‘l) which being more and more actualised through the illumination of al-‘aql al-fa‘‘al becomes similar to it and thus attains the status of the acquired intellect, i.e. of al-‘aql al-mustafad (q.v.).

    The problem of intellects so keenly discussed by all the Muslim Peripatetics is much more complicated and subtle than can be described here. It, however, originated from somewhat obscure and ambiguous statement of Aristotle  in the last book of his treatise on the soul (De Anima), in which he makes the distinction between the creative or active intellect and the passive intellect. Active intellect, he states, is the third besides the object and the passive intellect, as light is the third besides the eye and the object. Thus, active intellect is said to create the truths that we know, just as light may be said to make colors which we perceive by its aid. We see here at work Aristotle’s general principle that "what is potentially comes to be actually by the agency of something that already is actually" (Metaphysica, 1049b 24). Aristotle  in this entire discussion leaves unexplained the unity and individuality of human personality. Hence the Muslim philosophers reformulated the whole theory and brought to it many refinements and elaborations not to be found in Aristotle or his commentators.

 ????? ???????? al-‘aql al-mustafad

Accquired intellect, i.e. the intellect possessed with the comprehension of the universal forms, ultimate concepts and verities of knowledge by which possession it partakes more and more of the agent intellect (al-‘aql al-fa‘‘al, q.v.); also sometimes called al-‘aql bi’l-malakah.

 ????? ??????? al-‘aql al-mufariq

The seperated intellect, i.e. the intellect or intelligence of a heavenly sphere which is the cause of its motion; see also al-‘uqul al-‘asharah.

  ????? ?????? al-‘aql al-nazari

Theoretical reason or intellect which enables us to form universal concepts, comprehend meanings and interconnections of things, enter into argumentative discussion and have abstract thinking in general. See also al-quwwat al-‘aqliyah.

 ????? ????????? al-‘aql al-hayulani

The material intellect, also called al-‘aql bi’l-quwwah, i.e. potential intellect. It is the human intellect in its dormant form, merely a latent capacity to apprehend the universals and eternal truths subsistent in the active or agent intellect (al-‘aql al-fa‘‘al, q.v.).

 ?????? ?????? al-‘uqul al-‘asharah

The ten intelligences, i.e. the first intelligence (al-‘aql l-awwal, q.v.) in combination with the nine intelligences one for each of the following nine celestial spheres in a decending order: (1) the second intelligence of the sphere of the primum mobile; (2) the third intelligence of the sphere of the fixed stars (al-kawakib al-thabitah, q.v.); (3) the fourth intelligence of the sphere of Saturn (Zhhal); (4)the fifth intelligence of the sphere of Jupiter (Mushtari); (5) the sixth intelligence of the sphere of Mars (Marikh); (6)the seventh intelligence of the sphere of the Sun (Shams); (7)the eighth intelligence of the sphere of Venus (Zuhrah); (8)the ninth intelligence of the sphere of Mercury (‘Utarid); (9) the tenth intelligence of the sphere of the Moon (Qamar). This last is named as (al-‘aql al-fa‘‘al, q.v.) which is a kind of creative and regulating power governing this world of ours. It is noteworthy that the belief that each celestial sphere has a separate intelligence of it own, originated from Aristotle who even held that there were not ten intelligences but fifty or more.

 ???? ‘aqim

An invalid mode of reasoning which does not warrant any logical conclusion, e.g. the denial of antecedent (raf‘ al-muqaddam, q.v.) or the affirmation of consequent (wad’ al-tali) in a hypothetical syllogism; opposed to muntij (q.v.). See also mughalatah wad‘ al-tali.

 ??? ‘aks

Conversion, i.e. deriving a proposition by way of an immediate inference from a given propositon by transposing its subject and predicate but without changing its quality and without distributing a term in the inferred proposition (ma‘kus, q.v.) which is not already distributed in the given proposition (ma‘kus minhu, q.v.); sometimes called al-‘aks al-mustawi to distinguish it from al-‘aks al-naqid (q.v.) see also mun‘akis.

 ????? ??????? al-‘aks al-mustawi

Conversion; see ‘aks.

 ????? ?????? al-‘aks al-naqid

Contrapositon, i.e. an immediate inference in which from a given proposition we infer another proposition, having for its subject the contradictory of the given predicat, e.g. from the propostion of the form "All S is P" we have through al-‘aks al-naqid "No not-P is S"; it thus involves first obversion (‘adl, q.v.) of the given proposition then conversion (‘aks, q.v.) of the obverse (ma‘dul, q.v.).

 ????? ?????? al-‘illat al-tammah

The sufficient cause of a thing, i.e. the cause which is adequate to produce an effect, e.g. a certain quantity of medicine to bring about the desired cure; more usually it consists of a number of positive casual conditions; opposed to al-‘illat al-naqisah (q.v.).

 ????? ??????? al-‘illat al-suriyah

The formal cause of a thing, i.e. the form or shape (surah, q.v.) given to a thing while producing it; with Aristotle it is also the inner idea or essence of a thing.

 ????? ??????? al-‘illat al-gha’iyah

The final cause of a thing, i.e. the purpose, aim or final end for which a thing is produced; with Aristotle it is primarily the realisation of the inner idea or essence of a thing in actuality; sometimes also called al-‘illat al-lima’iyah (q.v.).

 ????? ???????? al-‘illat al-fa‘iliyah

The efficient cause of a thing, i.e. the efficiency or labor of an active agent that produces a thing, e.g. the efficiency or labor of a carpenter in producing a table.

 ????? ???????? al-‘illat al-lima’iyah

The final cause of a thing, the purpose or final end for which a thing is produced; also called al-‘illat al-gha’iyah (q.v.).

 ????? ??????? al-‘illat al-maddiyah

The material cause of a thing; see al-‘illat al-hayullaniyah.

 ????? ??????? al-‘illat al-naqisah

The insufficient cause of a thing, i.e. the cause which by itself is inadequate to produce an effect, e.g. medicine alone may not be adequate to bring about the desired cure without careful nursing, proper dieting, complete rest and other hygienic conditions; opposed to al-‘illat al-tammah (q.v.).

 ????? ?????????? al-‘illat al-hayullaniyah

The material cause of a thing, i.e. the stuff or substance of which a thing is made; with Aristotle it does not have to be necessarily a physical substance but anything: physical, mental, or, spiritual, e.g. the human passions, interests and conflicts are the material cause of a novel or a drama.

 ????? ??????? al-‘ilal al-arba‘ah

The four causes, viz. the material cause (al-‘illat al-hayullaniyah, q.v.), the formal cause (al-‘illat al-suriyah, q.v.), efficient cause (al-‘illat al-fa‘iliyah, q.v.) and the final cause (al-‘illat al-gha’iyah, q.v.). These four causes may all appear together in the defination of a thing, for example, a knife may be defined as an iron implement (material cause) of such shape (formal cause) made by the ironsmith (efficient cause) for cutting things (final cause).

 ????? ?????? al-‘ilm al-ladunni

"Inspired knowledge", or "knowledge derived from the presence of God", i.e. mystical comprehension–inspired by an encounter with God–of things spiritual.

 ????? ‘anasir

Element. Theory of elements current with Muslim philosophers was that of four elements: fire, air, water and earth, which originated with Empedocles (Anbadqulis, q.v.) though they sometimes added to them ether as the fifth element specific to the body of celestial spheres; the terms used cognate with ‘anasir were ustuqussat (q.v.) and arkan (see al-arkan al-arb‘ah)

 ??????? ?????? al-‘anasir al-‘uqud

Modes of being, viz. necessity (wujub), possibility (imkan) and impossibility (imtina‘); the term is also used to denote the corresponding modalities of propositions (see jihah).

 ?????? ?????? al-‘anasir al-a‘zam

The supreme element, an expression used to denote the first intelligence; see al-‘aql al-awwal.

 ?????? ?????? al-‘anasir al-thaqil

The heavy element, the atoms of which always move downward like the atoms of earth which are said to be absolutely heavy or like those of water which are relatively so.

 ?????? ?????? al-‘anasir al-khafif

The light element, the atoms of which always move upward like the atoms of fire which are said to be absolutely light or like those of air which are relatively so.

 ??? ‘ain (pl. a‘yan)

Lit. "eye". With the philosophers it denotes a particular concrete thing perceived in the outside world as distinguished from the concept of that thing in the mind; in this sense it is synonymous with the term shaks (q.v.). It is also sometimes used in the sense of substance (jauhar, q.v.). The Sufis, on the other hand, use the term ‘ain for the inner essence of a ting and more specifically for the universal idea of a thing eternally existing in the mind of God. Hence the term al-a‘yan al-thabitha (q.v.) (where thabitha means stable or eternal) for the eternal ideas existing in the mind of God which are said to be really real, of which this world is a mere shadow or dream according to the Platonic tradition.

 ??? ?????? ‘ain al-tali

Affirmation of the consequent, an involved mode of reasoning which does not warrant any logical conclusion; opposed to naqid al-tali (q.v.). See also mughalatah wad‘ al-tali.

 ??? ?????? ‘ain al-muqaddam

The affirmation of the antecedent in the minor premise of a mixed hypothetical syllogism (al-qiyas al-sharti al-muttasil, q.v.) leading to the affirmation of the consequent (tali, q.v.) in the conclusion, a valid mode of reasoning called the positive mode (Modus Ponens) of hypothetical syllogism; opposed to naqid al-muqaddam (denial of the antecedent) which is a form of logical fallacy. See also mughalatah raf‘ al-muqaddam.

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