????? ribatah

Lit. "connection", technically the copula, i.e. the relation between subject and predicate in a proposition.

 ???? ??? ???????? al-radd ‘ala al-imtina‘

Reductio ad impossibile, the refutation of a proposition by showing that its consequences are impossible or logically absurd. See also muqati‘.

 ??? ridf

Lit. "consequent"; a term sometimes used in logic to denote the conclusion in a syllogism, i.e. the inferred propositions or premises. See also qiyas.

 ????? ????? al-rasm al-tamm

The complete description of a thing as distinguished from its complete definition (al- hadd al-tamm, q.v.); it generally refers to the proximate genus and the proprium of a thing, e.g. the description of man as a laughing animal.

 ????? ?????? al-rasm al-naqis

The imperfect description of a thing which refers to one of its properties (propria) or the property along with the remote genus (al-jins al-ba‘id), e.g. the description of man as one who laughs or a "body" that laughs. More often it refers merely to the accidents (a‘rad) of a thing, e.g. when we describe man as one who stands erect, walks on his feet, grasps things with his hands, etc.

 ??? ?????? raf‘ al-tali

The denial of the consequent in the minor premise of a hypothetical syllogism (al-qiyas al-sharti al-istithna’i, q.v.) leading to the denial of the antecedent in the conclusion; a valid mode of reasoning know as Modus Tollens, i.e. the negative mode of hypothetical syllogism; opposed to wad‘ al-tali (affirmation of the consequent in the minor premise) which is a form of logical fallacy. See also mughalatah wad‘ al-tali.

 ??? ?????? raf‘ al-muqaddam

The fallacy of the denial of antecedent; see also mughalatah raf‘ al-muqaddam.

 ?????? Rawaqiyah

Stoicism, so named by the Muslim philosophers because the founder of the school of Stoicism, Zeno (Zainun, q.v. as distinguished from Zainun al-Akbar, q.v.) used to teach in a rawaq, i.e. in Stoa Poecile or a Painted Porch at Athens. According to the Stoics, virtue alone is good while there are no degrees of moral goodness: it is all or nothing. One ought to have a full control of one’s passions and desires by becoming completely indifferent to pain and pleasure; for, thus, alone could one attain to the life of virtue. The Stoics enlarge the area of moral responsibility from the confines of a City-State to include all human beings. Everyone is a citizen of one and the same state, i.e. the State of Humanity. All men are of one blood, of one family and so each should treat everyone else as "scared beings". In their view of the universe they included a kind of pantheism. The Muslim philosophers welcomed their humanitarianism and cosmopolitanism, and also keenly studied their theory of knowledge and logic.

 ????? ??????? al-ruh al-jariyah

The travelling spirit or soul which is supposed to leave the body during sleep and give rise to dreams; opposed to (al-ruh al-muhkam, q.v.).

 ????? ???????? al-ruh al-hayawaniyah

The animal soul, common to the rational and the non-rational animals. It is supposed to be located in the heart from where the animal spirits spread into the arteries and capillaries and thus in all parts of the body; also called (al-ruh al-ghariziyah, q.v.). See also al-nafs al-hayawaniyah.

 ????? ???????? al-ruh al-tabi‘iyah

"The natural soul", common to animals and plants. In animals it is supposed to be located in the liver from where it spreads into all the veins of the body. See also al-nafs al-nabatiyah and al-nafs al-hayawaniyah.

 ????? ???????? al-ruh al-ghariziyah

The animal spirits emanating from the heart and spreading in all parts of the body. See also al-ruh al-hayawaniyah and al-nafs al-hayawaniyah.

 ???? ?????? al-ruh al-muhkam

The resident soul which unlike the travelling soul (al-ruh al-jariyah, q.v.) is supposed never to leave the body.

 ????? ???????? al-ruh al-nabatiyah

The vegetable soul; see al-ruh al-tabi‘iyah and al-nafs al-nabatiyah.

 ????? ????????? al-ruh al-nafsaniyah

The sensual soul; it is supposed to reside in the brain from where, through the nerves, it spreads itself in all parts of the body.

 ???? ??????? ru’us al-fada’il

Four cardinal virtues, viz. wisdom (hikmah), courage (shaja‘ah), temperance (‘iffah) and justice (‘adalah); each of them has been further divided by Muslim ethicists into many sub-species of virtues. See also ummahat al-fada’il.

 ???????? Rituriqa

Rhetorica or the Rhetoric: Aristotle’s seventh book on logic, also entitled as al-Khatabah (q.v.) in Arabic; it deals with the art of persuading through oratorical devices.

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