?? ????? la adriyah
Skepticism, the doctrine that no certain knowledge is possible, for senses can deceive and reasoning may be false-a view, for example, adopted by Imam Ghazali (450-505/1053-1111 -website-) at one stage of his spiritual development. In-its extreme form, as with some of the Greek philosophers, skepticism means that one does not know anything, and not even that. See also Furun.
?? ???? ???? ?? ?? ???? la yasduru shai-un an la shai-in
The principle of ex nihilo nihil fit: out of nothing, nothing comes. The fundamental assumption of the law of causation that nothing happens in the universe without there being a cause for it. See also al-ilal al-arbaah.
Vocable [see S. Afnan, Avicenna: His Life and Works, 92]; term. (AnAc)
??????? ?????? al-alfaz al-khamsah
Literally the five predicables. It is also known as the al-mufradat al-khamsah (the five definitions) or al-kulyat al-khamsah. The first is genus (jins, q.v.) and nau', species is the second. The third is fasl and the fourth is 'ard amm (general) and the fifth predicable is khas (specific). Ikhwan al-Safa' also added a sixth predicable called shkash, class membership. Note that this entry is missing from the printed text.
????? ?????? al-lafz al-hasir
The word used as a quantifier of a determinate proposition [al-qadiyat al-mahsurah, (q.v.); or al-qadiyat al-musawwarah (q.v.)], i.e. the expressions like "all"; "some"; "not all", "not some", used to indicate the definite quantity of the subject in a proposition. See also sur.
????? ??????? al-lafz al-mushtarak
Homonym, a word that is spelt and pronounced in the same way as another, but has an entirely distinct meaning like the word ain in Arabic which means "eye" as well as "spring" and the word "spring" itself in English which means "springing motion" as well as the "place where water or oil wells up". The use of such words. leads to a number of fallacies of equivocation in logic (see mughalatah ishtirak al-lafzi).
"Why?": a form of question put in order to discuss the form and matter of definitions and propositions with regard to problems that arise in science. The interrogative pronoun lima is used in logic to ask two kinds of things: (1) "Why a thing is or what it is?" or "Why has an event occurred?", i.e. "What is the cause of it?" (2) "What are the grounds of somebody's making an assertion?", i.e. "How is the assertion to be verified?". See further mutaalliqat al-qiyas wal-burhan.
The touch sensation: a power diffused in the skin and flesh of the animal body. When anything comes in contact with the body the nerves are stimulated and there occurs a change in the skin or flesh which leads to the sensation of touch. This is not a single sensation but one constituted of four pairs of sensations that we get from different sense-organs in the skin or flesh. These four pairs of contrary sensations are: heat and cold, dryness and wetness, roughness and smoothness, hardness and softness (see al-hawas al-zahirah). Through these sensations an animal is enabled to feel its way towards safe and profitable places and avoid those which are dangerous and unprofitable.
Lit. "he has", but technically the category of possession as one of the ten Aristotelian categories (al-maqulat al-ashr, q.v.) see milk.
??? ??????? lauh al-taqabul
Table or square of opposition representing four kinds of relations of "opposition" among the four traditional propositions, i.e. (1) subalternation (tahkim, q.v.), (2) contradiction (tanaqud, q.v.), (3) contrariety (tadadd, q.v.). and (4) subcontrariety (al-tadadd al-tahtani, q.v.). See also al-qadiyatan al-mutaqabilatan.
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