??? zuhal

The planet Saturn or its sphere ( falak, q.v.); see also al-kawakib al-sayyarah.

 ???? zaman

Time. It is dependent on movement and yet different from it. Whereas movement shows diversity in direction, time proceeds always and only in one direction. Time is known only in relation of before and after like a movement in a straight line and at a uniform rate. It, thus, can be expressed only in a series of continuous quantities (al-kamm al-muttasil, q.v.). Bodies are in time, not in their essence, but because they are in movement and movement is in time. Time belongs to the category of the created beings, but it is nowhere except in itself. So far as this world of ours is concerned it is measured and made known by the movements of the heavenly bodies. See also dahr and sarmad.

 ???? zuhrah

The planet Venus or its sphere ( falak, q.v.); see also al-kawakib al-sayyarah.

 ??? ????? zauj al-zauj

"Pair of pair": a number, say 64, which is continuously divisible by two till the dividend is one.

 ????? Zainun

Zeno of Citium (c. 340-265 B.C.), the founder of Stoicism; distinguished generally in the Muslim works on history of philosophy from Zeno of Elea by calling the latter as Zainun al-Akbar (q.v.); see also Ashab al-Mazallah and Rawaqiyah.

 ????? ?????? Zainun al-Akbar

Zeno of Elea (c. 490-430 B.C.), disciple of Parmenides (Barminidus, q.v.). He is famous for his paradoxes on motion and plurality, which he advanced to defend the block-reality monism of his master. They, however, raised good deal of controversy and, thus, contributed to increase logical and mathematical rigour throughout the ages.

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