??????? ??? ?????? dakhilatan taht al-tadadd

The two sub-contrary propositions; see al-qadiyatan al-dakhilatan taht al-tadadd.

 ???? da‘im

Perpetual. (AnAc)

 ???? darajah

Stage. (AnAc)

 ????? dalalah

The manner in which a vocable (lafz) signifies the meaning of a thing that it designates; it is of three kinds: dalalat al-mutabaqah (q.v.), dalalat al-tadammun (q.v.) and. dalalat al-iltizam (q.v.). {Also: connotation, signify the meaning (of something) [see S. Afnan, Avicenna: His Life and Works, 92-3]. (updated by: AnAc)}

 ????? ???????? dalalat al-iltizam

Signification by association or implication between the word and its designatum, when, for example, the word "roof" is used to designate the walls as well; the latter designatum is associated with or implied in the former.

 ????? ??????? dalalat al-tadammun

Signification of partial accord between the word and its designatum, when, for example, the word "house" is used to signify only a part of the house, i.e. its roof only or walls only, etc.

 ????? ?????? dalalat al-tatafful

A term used by Shihab al-Din Suhrawardi Maqtul (549-587/1153-1191) for dalalat al-iltizam (q.v.).

 ????? ?????? dalalat al-haitah

A term used by Shihab al-Din Suhrawardi Maqtul for dalalat al-tadammun (q.v.)

 ????? ???????? dalalat al-mutabaqah

Signification of complete accord between a word and its designatum, when, for example, the word "house" is used to signify the whole of the house taking all its parts, the walls, the roofs, the floors, etc. into consideration.

 ???? dalil

A word of common use in philosophical discourse but bearing different meanings among which the following should be distinguished: ( i ) designation or indication by which a sign "leads" to another sign or thing; (2) proof in a general sense to be distinguished from a proof in the strict sense, i.e. from the syllogistic proof [al-burhan al-mutlaq (q.v.) or al-burhan al-qati‘ (q.v.)] in deductive logic by which the particular is deduced from the universal; (3) more specifically the proof by which the cause is inferred from the effect or universal from the particular; see also istidlal and al-burhan al-’inni.

 ?????? ???????? al-dalil al-iqna‘i

The persuasive argument; see iqna and qiyas al-iqna‘i.

 ?????? ???????? ??? ????? al-dalil al-murafa‘ah ila al-shakhs

The fallacy of argumentum ad hominem: a kind of the fallacy of ignoratio elenchi (mughalatat al-natijah ghair al-muta‘alliqah, q.v.) ; see also mughalatat al-dalil al-murafa‘ah ila al-shakhs.

 ??? dahr

The eternal duration in which eternity in past (azal, q.v.) is in a constant union with eternity in future (abad, q.v.). Dahr being the innermost essence or part of time (zaman, q.v.), encompasses it altogether. Dahr, compared with time and measured by it, is found to have a permanence corresponding exactly to the permanence of time with reference to what is contained in it; see also sarmad.

 ??? daur

A term used in logic to denote the circularity in argument or proof which occurs when a proposition is put forward followed by a number of propositions successively and at the end the last proposition is posited as the proof of the original proposition. It is, thus, a kind of petitio principii. In a simpler form it may be merely the rotation of two proposition, one used as a proof of the other. See also al-musadarah ‘ala’l-matlub al-awwal and muqati‘.

 ???????? Dimiqratis

Democritus of Abdera (c. 460-370 B.C.): famous in Muslim philosophy for his theory of atoms; generally considered to be the founder of Greek atomism and also of the notion of empty space.

 ??????? ??????? Dayujans al-Kalabi

Diogenes of Sinope (412 ?-323 B.C.): Greek cynic philosopher; studied under Antisthenes (c. 444-368 B.C.); the founder of cynicism (kalabiyah, q.v.). Diogenes rejected all social conventions. According to a tradition current in Arabic as well as in Persian literature, he once went through streets holding up a lantern "looking for an honest man". According to another similar tradition, he was visited at Corinth by Alexander the Great who asked if he could oblige the philosopher in any way, "Yes", Diogenes, "stand from between me and the sun."


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