Generally accepted or widespread data or premises, i.e. propositions to which the evidence of the majority of people as well as of those learned in the sciences causes our assent.
A common term in philosophical discourse but used in different senses of which the following should be noted: (1) Thing or individual (in this sense identical with shai or ain, q.v.). (2) Being or self (identical with anniyah, q.v.). (3) The essence of a thing, its inner meaning or its essential qualities (in this sense identical with mahiyah, q.v.). (4) Substance or substratum of a thing in which the qualities inhere or of which the attributes can be predicated (in this sense more or less identical with jauhar, q.v.).
The faculty of memory or reminiscence; see al-quwwat al-mutadhakirah.
Dimunition or decay of body due to lack of nourishment; one of the four kinds of harakah fil-kamm (q.v.).
The category of "ownership" or possession as one of the ten Aristotelian categories (al-maqulat al-ashr, q.v.); see also milk.
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Dilemma, i.e. the complex syllogism which has for its major premise the two conditional conjunctive propositions (al-sharti al-muttasilah, q.v.) and for the minor premise the conditional disjunctive (al-sharti al-munfasil, q.v.) which together lead to a conclusion either in the categorical or in the conditional disjunctive; see also qiyas dhu al-jihatain.
Taste sensation, a power placed in the gustatory nerves. spread out on the skin of the tongue. By this power or faculty tastes are perceived through the mixing of the saliva which is in the mouth with the thing tasted and through its stimulating the gustatory nerves. The two senses of touch and taste are found in all animals for these are of primary importance for the animal life. The rest of the three senses, i.e. smell, sight and hearing, being of secondary importance, are found in some animals only. See also tuum.
Dioscorides: Greek physician of first century C.E.; his work on Materia Medica was translated into Arabic by Hunain ibn Ishaq (d. 264/877).
Diophantus: Greek mathematician of the second half of third century C.E., said to be a great Greek writer on algebra.
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