????? tarafain (sing. tarf)

Lit. "two extremes" or "two sides"; technically it denotes major term (al-hadd al-akbar, q.v.) and minor term (al-hadd al-asghar, q.v.) as opposed to middle term (al-hadd al-ausat, q.v.).

 ???? tu‘um

Tastes, i.e. gustatory sensations. Muslim philosophers mention nine species of tastes; sweetness (halawah), saltishness (malahah), acidity or sourness (humudah), bitterness (mararah), pungency or sharpness (harafah), astringency (‘ufusah), puckeriness (qabd), greasiness (dusumah) and insipidity (tafahah).

 ???? Tafrah

Jerk, jump (F. Rahman, Mulla Sadra, 97, line 40); leap. (AnAc)

 ?????? Tubiqa

Topica or the Topics, Aristotle’s fifth book on logic, also entitled as al-Jadal or al-Mawadi‘ al-Jadaliyah in Arabic; it deals with the truth and falsity of the statements of the two opponents involved in a disputation (al-jadal). (online text)

 ?????? Taima’us

Timaeus, (??a???) one of Plato’s Dialogues: the most influential of his works during the Middle Ages. It deals with Plato's cosmogony and cosmology and particularly with his theory of creation. The work is permeated with many mythical elements and such as to contradict Plato’s other teachings; but he claims for them nothing more than probability. Though clothed in mythical garb, Plato’s cosmology as given in this work on the whole is a teleological world-view. It is an attempt to explain reality as a purposeful, well-ordered cosmos-the world, being governed by an intelligence, is guided by reason and directed towards an ethical goal. (Online text and also in English translation (B. Jowett) of the text is available online)

 Dictionary - Islamic Philosophy Home - E-mail - Guest Book