ABUL WALID MUHAMMAD IBN RUSHD AL-QURTUBI (Averroes)
Ibn Rushd (Averroes) is regarded by many as the foremost Islamic philosopher.
Abu'l-Walid Ibn Rushd, better known as Averroes (1126-1198), stands out as a towering figure in the history of Arab-Islamic thought, as well as that of West-European philosophy and theology. In the Islamic world, he played a decisive role in the defense of Greek philosophy against the onslaughts of the Ash'arite theologians (Mutakallimun), led by al-Ghazali (d. 1111), and the rehabilitation of Aristotle.
A common theme throughout his writings is that there is no incompatibility between religion and philosophy when both are properly understood. His contributions to philosophy took many forms, ranging from his detailed commentaries on Aristotle, his defense of philosophy against the attacks of those who condemned it as contrary to Islam and his construction of a form of Aristotelianism which cleansed it, as far as was possible at the time, of Neoplatonic influences.
In the Western world, he was recognized, as early as the thirteenth century, as the Commentator of Aristotle, contributing thereby to the rediscovery of the Master, after centuries of near-total oblivion in Western Europe. That discovery was instrumental in launching Latin Scholasticism and, in due course, the European Renaissance of the fifteenth century. Notwithstanding, there has been very little attention to Averroes' work in English, although greater interest has been shown in French, since the publication of Ernest Renan's Averroes et l'averroisme in 1852.
- Tahfut al-Tahafut the complete work Arabic :
- Commentaries on many of Aristotle's works. Listing of works in print to come. Note that his commentaries come in three forms: summaries, middle commentaries, and grand commentaries. He also commented on Plato's republic. Aristotle's Politics was not available in Arabic. Also some of his works were lost and no longer available in Arabic but are available in Hebrew translation and transliteration.
- Talkhis Kitab al-Jadal (Middle Commentary on Aristotle's Topics) available from GEBO (General Egyptian Book Organization) in Arabic, edited by Charles Butterworth.
- Fasl al-Maqal (Faith & Reason)
- al-Kashf 'an manahij al-'adla fi 'aqaid al-mila (Clarifying the systems of proof in the beliefs of the nation [of Muslims]): Critical Edition under the supervision of M. A. al-Jabari (PDF) Beirut 1998.
- al-Da'ruri fi Isul al-Fiqh (Summary of al-Ghazali's Mustasfa) Arabic (PDF). Also in word file. Courtesy of the Poloz family, Morocco.
- Bidyat al-Mujtahid (Compartive Fiqh book): Arabic E-text (unedited) Source: Muhadith.org (Zipped) There are many editions of this book in print.
- English Language Table of contents and summary. word file.
In English & other languages:
- Tahfut at Tahafut (Incoherence of the Incoherence) Yes, the complete English translation in HTML...no notes!
- On the harmony of Religion and Philosophy (E-text)
- A better HTML version in multiple pages. (Link with E-text)
- New Translation by G. F. Hourani (no intro - no footnotes -Just translation) also contains a partial translation of Kitab al-kashf an manahij al-'adilla.
- A newer Translation: Decisive Treatise & Epistle Dedicatory (Averroes), a parallel English-Arabic text translated and introduced with notes by Charles Butterworth (Information link)
- Turkoman Translation (pdf) by Dr. Tahir Ashurov. Courtesy of the translator.
- Kitab al-kashf an manahij al-'adilla- translated into English as Faith & Reason in Islam. Introduction - Table of contents (link). Note that with the above two works they form a sort of a trilogy of works on the interaction of philosophy and theology.
- Bidayat al-Mujtahid (Distinguished Jurist) (Link-Intro/Contents)
- Ibn Rushd's Metaphysics. C. Genequand (PDF)
- In Hebrew. (Image of Manuscript.)
- Middle Commentary on Poetics translated by Charles Butterworth. St. Augustine’s Press, ISBN: 1-890318-03-5, 2000, (link: - book info.)
- Averroes Latin Corpus project. (link) By Prof. Gerhard Endress.
- Averroes’ Middle Commentaries on Aristotle's Categories and De Interpretatione: Translation, with notes and introduction by Charles Butterworth, St. Augustine’s Press; ISBN: 1-890318-01-9, 1998- (link: - book info.)
Works about him:
In English & other languages:
- Averroes' Critique of Kalam Atomism by M. Altaie (Arabic PDF E-text) Arabic Word. (note there is an abstract in English on page 2).
- BEING AND LANGUAGE IN AVERROES TAHAFUT AT-TAHAFUT by: Prof. M. Campanini
- Ibn Rushd Encyclopedia of Islam article (e-text).
- Ibn Rushd Encyclopedia of Religion article (PDF e-text) File Size: 252KB.
- Biography & works from Routledge...
- Averroes by Majid Fakhry -Preface and Introduction -Table of contents (link)
- New Light on the Political Philosophy of Averroes. C. Butterworth. (e-text) (PDF file size: 346Kb)
- Ibn Rushd's Criticisms of the Theologians Arguments for the Existence of God By: I. Y. Najjar (link)
- Averroes and the case of the Fiery Furnace. E. Madden (e-text) (PDF file size: 538 Kb)
- The human intellect: The journey of an idea from Aristotle to Ibn-Rushd by J. Kenny O. P.
- Ibni Ruschd (Bio in German).
- AVERROES Y EL AVERROÍSMO by: R.H. Shamsuddín Elía (In Spanish)
- AVERROES Y LA REVOLUCION INTELECTUAL DEL SIGLO XIII (In Spanish)
- Ibn Rushd article in Aramaco world. (New)
- Averroes in Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. (contains some serious errors...)
- The Philosophy of Ibn Rushd. Jamal d. al-'Alawi.
- Translation and Philosophy: The Case of Averroes' Commentaries. C. E. Butterworth. (PDF)
- Averroistic Trends in Jewish-Christian Polemics in the Late Middle Ages. D. J. Lasker (PDF)
- The Twice-Revealed Averroes. H. A. Wolfson. (PDF)
- Infinite and Privative Judgments in Aristotle, Averroes, and Kant. H. A. Wolfson (PDF)
- Revised Plan for the Publication of a Corpus Commentariorum Averrios in Aristotelem. H. A. Wolfson (PDF) Also Corrigendum.
- Averroes on the Metaphysics of Aristotle. I. Husik (PDF)
- Remarks on Averroes' Decisive Treatise. M. Madhi (PDF)
- Averroes' Doctrine of the Mind. S. C. Tornay (PDF)
New Research published:
- B.A. Thesis by Maksood Aftab. Uses some of Ibn Rushd's Arguments.
- IBN RUSHD'S (AVERROES') DOCTRINE OF THE AGENT INTELLECT. EL-HAR, AHMED M., Ph.D, 8223663.
- THE CONFLICT OVER THE WORLD'S PRE-ETERNITY IN THE 'TAHAFUTS' OF AL-GHAZALI AND IBN RUSHD. MARMURA, MICHAEL ELIAS, Ph.D, 5904955.
- Ibn Rushd biography by Encyclopedia Britannica... (e-text)
- Basic web biography... (link)
- Ibn Rushd, Philosopher and theologian by Yousif F. Raslan. (link)
- Ibn Rushd and the seeds of European Renaissance. by Heba Salloum. (link)
- About.com's website's article on Ibn Rushd. (link)
- from Pak Center's website: Ibn Rushd. (link)
- Dr. A. Zahoor's biogoraphy of Ibn Rushd. (copied widely on the net) (link)
- Averroes bio in Greek. (link)
- Ibn Rushd as a Physician. (link)
- Tapestry Project-Averroes Page by Litsa E. Williams. (link)
- Catholic Encyclopedia's article on Averroes. (link)
City of his birth and work:
- Ibn Rushd: Fund for Freedom of thought. site, in Arabic, German and English. - A reinterpretation of Ibn Rushd for the Modern Age :(
- See our Guest Book - Islamic
last updated on 2007-12-06 .
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