87

See 2:124, below. In the colophon at the end of Ch. in, A speaks of the "end of the first half of the Muqaddimah," and in the colophon at the end of Ch. iv, D speaks of the chapter as the "fourth chapter of the muqaddimah of the History." See also p. 10, 1. 11, below.

88

See p. cv, below.

89

For opinions on the style and language of the Muqaddimah, see also p. cxi, below.

90

Cf. F. Rosenthal, The Technique and Approach of Muslim Scholarship (Analecta Orientalia, No. 24) (Rome, 1947), pp. 37 ff.

91

See 2:139 ff., below.

92

Cf. Autobiography, p. 373; W. J. Fischel, Ibn Khaldun and Tamerlane, pp. 37 f.

93

See 3:183, below.

94

See 2:187 ff., below.

95

See, for instance, nn. 110, 1489, and 1502 to Ch. vi, below.

96

Cf. Ptolemy Tetrabiblos [Quadripartitum] ii. 2; ed. and tr. F. E. Robbins (Loeb Classical Library) (Cambridge, Mass. & London, 1940), pp. 120 f. A. von Kremer, "Ibn Chaldun and seine Kulturgeschichte der islamischen Reiche," in Sitzungs-Berichte der k..4kademie der Wissenschaften zu Wien, XCIII (1879), 589 ff., referred to al-Jahiz, in this connection. Cf. also al≠Kindi, Fi l-ibanah 'an al-'illah al fd'ilah al-qarlbah li-I-kawn wa-l fasdd, ed. M. 'A. Abu Ridah in Rasa'il al-Kinds aI falsafiyah (Cairo, 136911950), 1, 224 ff.

From a later period one may, for instance, compare Rashid-ad-din, Ta'rikh al-Ghazani (photostat of an Istanbul MS in the Egyptian Library in Cairo, ta'rikh 1889, p. 41): "In each zone there must be people who dwell in towns and people who dwell in deserts off by themselves, especially in countries where there are gardens and meadows and much water and splendid pastures and where there is no equal distribution of cultivated areas ('imarat)."

97

Cf. Ibn Abi Zayd, Risalah, ed. L. Bercher (Bibliotheque arabe-frangaise) (3d ed.; Algiers, 1949), pp. 320 fr. Two of Ibn Khaldun's early teachers, al-Widiyashi and Ibn 'Abd-as-Sal£m, taught him the Risalah; cf. as-Sakhawi, a l-Daw' al-ldml', IX, 241.

98

See p. 79 and 2:417, below.

99

A Malikite scholar of northwestern Africa, al-Qabisi, quotes the seventh-century Ibn Masud as saying, "Men need three things: (1) a ruler to decide their differences, for without one, each would eat the other...." Cf. A. F. al-Ahwini, at-Ta'lim fi ray al-Qdbisi (Cairo, 1364/1945), p. 270.

100

Cf. M. Horten, Die Metaphysik Avicennas (Halle & New York, 1907), pp. 673 f., for the Kitab ash-Sh'fa'; and Avicenna, Kitab an-N'ajah (Rome, 1593), p. 84. For references from Greek and Arabic literature in this con≠nection, see D. Santillana, Istituzioni di diritto musulmano malichita (Rome, [19261-38), I, 10 (n. 57). A brief statement by Ibn Taymiyah along the same lines, from his hisbah fi l-Islam (Cairo, 1318/1900-1901), p. 3, was also quoted in connection with Ibn Khaldun by H. A. R. Gibb, "The Islamic Background of Ibn Khaldun's Political Theory," in Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies, VII (1933), 23-31.

101

As-Shahrazuri, ash-Shajarah al-ilahiyah, quoted from the Istanbul MS, Topkapusaray, Ahmet III, 3227, fol. 501a.

102

Cf. Majd-ad-din Ibn al-Athir, .Nihayah (Cairo, 1329/1904), IV, 221; Lisan al-'Arab (Bulaq, 1300-1308/1882-90), X, 270. Another of the traditions quoted in these works reads: "The restraining influence of the govern≠ment is more widely effective than that of the Qur'an." Ascribed to the caliph 'Uthmin, this remark appears as early as the ninth-century Kitab al-Kuttab of 'Abdallah al-Baghdadi, ed. D. Sourdel in Bulletin d'Etudes Orientales (Damascus), XIV (1954), 142. Its application to political theory was discussed in the tenth century by Muhammad b. Yusuf al-'Amid in his I'lam bi-manaqib al-Islam (MS, Istanbul, Ragib 1463, fol. 18b). Cf. The Islamic Quarterly, III (1966), 51. In the work of a Spanish author known to Ibn Khaldun, Ibn Bassam, the remark is ascribed to al-hasan b. Abi 1-Hasan al-Bagri (d. ca. 728). Cf. his Dhakhirah (Cairo, 1361/1942), 12, 9. The waza'ah (pl. of wazi') function as a kind of truant officers sent after mischievous boys in a story from the Kitab al-Aghani (Bulaq, 1285/1868), XVIII, 124. Cf. also ash-Sharishi, Sharh al-Magdmdt (Cairo 1306/1889), I, 143.

For the person who has the restraining influence in himself, earlier au≠thors did not use the root wz' but similar roots such as w'z and zjr; cf. al-Jahiz, Bukhala" (Cairo, 1948), p. 173; tr. C. Pellat (Beirut & Paris, 1951), p. 274; and al-Mawardi, al-Ahkam as-sullaniyah (Cairo, 1298/1881), Ch. xvi, p. 180. Al-Miwardi says that scholars have a restraining influence in themselves (zajir min nafsihi) which prevents them from sitting down in seats belonging to more distinguished and deserving scholars. According to a tradition quoted by al-Ghazzali, Ihya" (Cairo, 1352/1933), III, 10, the possession of a restraining influence in one's heart (wa'iz min qalbihi) is a gift of God. Zdjir min nafsihi, in connection with teachers, is also used by Ibn Khaldun, p. 452, 1. 12, below.

103

There has been considerable discussion among modern scholars as to the meaning of 'asabiyah. We may mention here only F. Gabrieli, "Il concetto della 'alabiyyah nel pensiero storico di Ibn Ualdun," in Atti della R. Accademia delle scienze di Torino, Classe di scienze morali, storiche e filologiche,LXV (1930), 473-512; and, most recently, H. Ritter, "Irrational Solidarity Groups, a Socio-Psychological Study in Connection with Ibn Khaldun," in Oriens, I (1948), 1-44.

104

Cf. Lisan al-'Arab, II, 96.

105

See p. 263, below, and F. Gabrieli, p. 474 (n. 1).

106

The historian at-Tabari also uses the term in the meaning of "tribal unrest." Cf. his Annales, ed. M. J. de Goeje et al. (Leiden, 1879-1901), III, 624; Glossary, p. ccclxiv.

107

Ibar, III, 3. See also pp. 414 f., below

108

Cf. 'Ibar, V, 237, following Ibn al-Athir, Kamil (Cairo, 1302/1885), XI, 49, anno 541.

109

Ibn al-Khatib, al-Ihatah, I, 7, and cf. also I, 100. A similar application of 'asabiyah is found in al-Mubashshir, Mukhtar al-hikam (Madrid, 1958), p. 41. Cf. F. Rosenthal, "Arabische Nachrichten uber Zenon den Eleaten," in Orientalia, N.S. VI (1937), 33 f. Further examples of 'asabiyah in connection with praiseworthy aspirations are found in Yaqut, Irshad, ed. Margoliouth (E. J. W. Gibb Memorial Series, No. 6) (Leiden & London, 1907-27), I, 77; 11, 157; (Cairo, 1355-57), II, 129; V, 155; however, in such cases, ta'assub is often used. * Al-Qifti, Inbah, II, 242; as-Safadi, Wafi, IV, 335.

110

Cf. D. Santillana, Istituzioni di diritto musulmano malichita, 11, 514: 'asabah 'agnates,' derived from 'asaba, 'to surround, fortify,' because, as the jurists say, the agnates surround a man and give him strength."

111

Amr is a word of many meanings, the principal ones being "command" and "matter." Kalimah means "word." In this context, the meaning of either word would seem to be something like "the whole business." Kalimah is commonly used in Muslim literature in this sense. It may have gained this meaning from "word" coming to mean "thing," a transition in meaning known from other Semitic languages. Therefore, kalimah has usually been translated in the following pages "the whole thing."

112

Ibn Khaldun's three steps: necessities, conveniences, and luxuries, correspond to Vico's six steps: "Men first feel necessity, then look for utility, next attend to comfort, still later amuse themselves with pleasure, thence grow dissolute in luxury, and finally go mad and waste their substance." Cf. G. Vico, The New Science, tr. T. G. Bergin and M. H. Fisch (Ithaca, N. Y., 1948), p. 70. Cf. also Ibn Khaldun's five stages in the life of dynasties, pp. 35a ff, below.

113

Again,Vico (loc. cit.) agrees with Ibn Khaldun: "The nature of peoples is first crude, then severe, then benign, then delicate, finally dissolute."

Al-Mubashshir b. Fatik, whose Mukhtar al-hikam, an anthology of the sayings of the ancient sages, was very popular in Spain-if not in Ibn Khaldun's time, at any rate a century earlier -attributes the following saying to Plato (No. 400 of Plato's sayings, quoted from the edition of the Mukhtar prepared by me = ed. Badawi [Madrid, 19581, p. 176):

"Great dynasties are tough of nature at the beginning, able to cope with realities and obedient to God and civil authority. Later on, towards the end of their course [?], when the security of the people has been assured, the latter begin to participate in the well-being that has been prepared for them. Then, submerged in the life of abundance and ease which the dynasty has made pos≠sible, they give themselves over to luxury and no longer come to the support (of the regime when it needs them). They are so affected by this course of events that eventually they lack the power to defend themselves against attack. When this has occurred, the power of the dynasty crumbles at the first assault. Dynasties are like fruits: too firm to be eaten at the beginning, they are of middling quality as they grow riper. Once they are fully ripened they taste good, but now they have come as close as fruits can come to rottenness and change."

114

Cf. the saying ascribed to Plato in al-Mubashshir b. Fatik, Mukhtar al-hikam, No. 148 of Plato's sayings; cf. H. Knust, Mittheilungen aus dem Eskurial (Bibliothek des Litterarischen Vereins in Stuttgart, No. 141) (Tubingen, 1879), p. 224 = ed. Badawi (Madrid, 1958), p.149:

"Dynasties begin young, grow to adulthood, and pass into their dotage. When the dynasty's income is greater than the ruler and his followers merit, the dynasty is young and promises to endure. When the income becomes equal to the need, the dynasty has reached self-contained adulthood. And when the income falls below what is needed, the dynasty has entered upon its second childhood."

115

Cf. S. Munk, Melanges de philosophie juive et arabe (Paris, 1859), p. 450 (n. 1). The same word malakah is also used by Ibn Khaldun in a different meaning as a technical term, "rulership." See p. 383, below.

116

A considerable proportion of the surviving literature is very imperfectly known and has yet to be published.

117

See p. xxxvi, above. It may be noted that Ibn Khaldun had a very low opinion of Abu Bakr, the Hafsid during whose reign he was born, and did not trouble to conceal it.