See n. 2, above.


I Pioneer work was done by N. Schmidt in Journal of the American Oriental Society, XLVI (1926), 171-76; M. Plessner in Islamica, IV (1931), 538-42; and Claude Cahen in Revue des etudes islamiques, X (1936), 351 f. The important listing of Muqaddimah MSS in GAL, II, 245; 2d ed., II, 316; Suppl., II, 343, must also be mentioned. For MSS and editions of Ibn Khaldan's work, one may further compare G. Gabrieli, "Saggi di bibliografia e concordanza della Storia d'Ibn Haldun," in Rivista degli studi orientali, X (1924), 169-211. * Cf. Badawi, Mu'allafdt Ibn Khaldun (Cairo, 1962).


Another MS of the Muqaddimah in Turkey (which I was unable to examine) is at Gulsehri, in the library of Kara Vezir Mehmet Pasa Cf. Une liste des manuscrits choisis parmi les bibliotheques de Kayseri, Aksehir, Bor, Gulsehri, Nevsehir,.Wigde, Urgup, publiee a l'occasion du XXII. Congres International des Orientalistes (Istanbul, 1951), p. 11.


See p. lxvii, above.


See pp. lix ff., above.


Cf. al-Maqqari, Nafh al-tib, IV, 14.


Cf. his Notizia intorno alla famosa opera istorica di A'bd-er-Rahman Ibnu Khaldun, nuova edizione (Florence, 1846), pp. 8 f.


H. P. J. Renaud reproduced a short passage from this MS, without comment. See 3:123 (n. 616), below.


In Journal asiatique, CCIII (1923), 161-68.


Cf. G. Bouthoul, Ibn-Khaldoun, sa philosophie sociale (Paris, 1930), p. 92.


Cf. F. Babinger, Die Geschichtsschreiber der Osmanen, pp. 152-54.


That is, in contrast to historical information based upon tradition.


This was not unusual. Other bibliophiles proud of their treasures made sure that the association value of a MS would not be overlooked. In Istanbul, for instance, a MS copy of Maskawayh's Jdwidhan Khiradh (Library Feyzullah, 1587) contains the note of a former owner or student to the effect that it had been studied in the year 589 [1187] by Mas'ud b. Mawdad b. Zengi, atabek of Mosul from 1176 to 1193.


Cf. as-Sakhawi, ad-Daw' al-lami, III, 94 f.


Cf. H. Ritter, "Autographs in Turkish Libraries," in Oriens, VI (1953), 83 and pl. xvii.


Cf. Autobiography, p. 271.


Cf. William Wright (ed.), The Palaeographical Society, Facsimiles of Manuscripts and Inscriptions (Oriental Series) (London, 1875-83), pl. lxxxiv: "Ibn Khaldun's own hand is that of a Maghribi who has trained himself to write in the Egyptian fashion."


Another famous scholar from the Muslim West, Ibn Sayyid-an-nas (cf. GAL, II, 71 f.; Suppl., II, 77), who, however, was born in Cairo, is said to have had a good knowledge of both the Egyptian and the Maghribi scripts. Cf. Ibn Hajar, ad-Durar al-kaminah, IV, 209. Cf. also the handwriting in the autograph of Ibn Sa'id (see below, 3:445), described by F. Trummeter, Ibn Sa'id's Geschichte der vorislamischen Araber (Stuttgart, 1928), p. 21.


Passages that appear as marginal additions in C are occasionally found incorporated in the texts of A and B.


Cf. EI, s.v. "Ali Pasha Damid."


See pp. c f., below. This MS has the additions that appear in the MS. Ragib Pala but not in C or any other of the available MSS. See p. xcix, below.


Cf. as-Sakhawi, ad-Daw' al-lami', X, 252-54.


The dependence of other MSS on D can easily be checked with the help of the omissions in D, as, for instance, the passage from 3:420 (n. 1649) to 3:426 (n. 1680), below.


Cf. at-Tanji's introduction to his edition of the Autobiography, pp. 10 f.


The MS belonged to Quatremere personally; his large library was acquired by the then King of Bavaria for his library in Munich.

No. 654 of Aumer's catalogue contains a very few excerpts from the Muqaddimah. Strangely enough, Aumer remarks that this MS agrees with Quatremere's MS. A. For the possibility that Quatremere's A is a copy of the Atif Effendi MS. C, see p. xcvii, above.


Cf. E. Blochet, Catalogue des manuscrits arabes des nouvelles acquisitions (Paris, 1925). Of course, this MS was no new acquisition, but in de Slane's catalogue of the Arabic MSS in Paris it was mentioned only in the Table de Concordances as No. 742 i-corresponding to No. 5076 of the handwritten catalogue.


Cf. GAL, II, 489 f.; Suppl., II, 726.


For partial editions and translations of sections of the 'Ibar other than the Muqaddimah, cf. GAL, II, 245; Suppl., II, 343 f.

A concordance of pages of de Slane's edition of the Histoire des Berberes, his translation of it, and Vols. VI and VII of the Bulaq edition, has been pro­vided by G. Gabrieli in Rivista degli studi orientali, X (1924), 169-211. A reprint of de Slane's translation of the Histoire des Berberes was undertaken under the supervision of P. Casanova (Paris, 1925, 1927, and 1934), but did not go beyond Vol. III. The pagination of the reprint is the same as that of the first edition. (Vol. IV was published in Paris in 1956, without the bibliography originally promised.)

Cf. further, 0. A. Machado, "La historia de los Godos segun Ibn Haldun," in Cuadernos de Historia de Espana (Buenos Aires), I-II (1944), 139-55.


According to some old notes of mine, which I am at present unable to check, the vocalized text appeared simultaneously with the unvocalized Beirut edition. However, Gabrieli, op. cit., states that the first vocalized edition appeared in 1900.


See p. lvii, above.


Cf. F. Rosenthal, .A History of Muslim Historiography, p. 40, quoting as-Sakhawi, ad-Daw' al-lami', VIII, 233.


See p. cvi, below.


See pp. lxx ff., above, and 2:139 ff., below.


See p. lxviii, above.


For the 'Ibar, the latest date to be found in the Bulaq text is 796 [1394]; cf. 'Ibar, V, 508; VI, 9. The Bulaq text of 'Ibar, VI, 200, refers to the year 799, but this appears to be a misprint, since de Slane's translation, II, 110 gives 796. It would, however, seem probable that MSS of the 'Ibar with additions of a later date exist.


F. Babinger, Die Geschichtsschreiber der Osmanen, pp. 282 f., mentions an edition (Bulaq, 1274) of 626 pp. I have no further information about it. M. Mostafa Ziada refers to a Turkish translation of the Muqaddimah made for Muhammad 'Ali of Egypt [?]. Cf. Middle Eastern Affairs, IV (1953), 267.


According to Babinger, this is the third volume of a complete edition of the Turkish translation, begun in 1275 [1858/59]. I am familiar only with the volume containing the sixth chapter. For the work on the 'Ibar by 'Abd-al-Latif Subbhi Pasha (1818-1886), published in Istanbul in 1276 [1859/ 601, cf. Babinger, pp. 368-70.


In Journal asiatique, XIV6 (1869), 218.


For early partial translations, see p. c, above.


It seems regrettable, and in some ways definitely misleading, that it was not possible to give a uniform translation to such commonly used words as nasab "descent, pedigree, lineage, family," sirr "secret," faun "branch,"and many others. In quite a few cases, as, for instance, in the case of sultan "government, authority, ruler, Sultan," it may seem advisable to add the Arabic at each occurrence. I decided against such a procedure, and only very rarely will the reader find an Arabic word added in brackets in the text of the translation.


Cf. Autobiography, p. 24,0, 1. 10.


Cf. F. Rosenthal, A History of Muslim Historiography, p. 419 (n. 7).


See pp. lxviii f., above,


See p. cviii, above.


Cf., for instance, the article by Renaud quoted below, n. 616 to Ch. VI. For earlier attempts in this direction by S. van den Bergh, J. -D. Luciani, and H. Frank, see nn. I, 263, and 454 to Ch. vi.


The total number of "mistakes" of one kind or another in the Muqaddimah is astonishingly small. Vico's La scienza nuova, by comparison, is full of wrong and outdated statements; cf the translation by T. G. Bergin and M. H. Fisch (Ithaca, N. Y., 1948), p. viii. Naturally, Vico was handicapped by his age's predilection for learned information. The desire to show off one's learning led to committing many blunders, but also prepared the soil for a tremendous growth of true learning, such as the prudent and staid civilization of Ibn Khaldun would never have contemplated.


Variant readings of the MSS have, however, not been indicated with any degree of consistency. Cf. p. lxxxix, above.


A. J. Toynbee, A Study of History (2d ed.; London, 1935), III, 322. cxv