Cf. 'Ibar, VII, 379-463. The text, which is very unsatisfactory, was reprinted in the margin of an edition of the Muqaddimah published in Cairo, 1322/1904. Showing that in the autograph manuscript of Ibn Khaldun's Lubab al-Muhassal, the vocalization muqaddamah is occasionally used, Fr. Luciano Rubio makes a rather strong case for reading Mugaddamah, instead of Muqaddimah. Cf. La Ciudad de Dios, CLXII (1950), 171-78. No com­pletely vocalized occurrence of the word-which would decide the question -is known to me from the old MSS of the Muqaddimah. I feel certain that both forms are equally possible, and that the problem is a very minor one.


The complete autobiography was edited by Muhammad Tawit at­Tanji and published under the title at-Ta'rif bi-Ibn Khaldun wa-rihlatuhu gharban wa-sharqan [Biography of Ibn Khaldun and Report on his Travel(s) in the West and in the East] (Cairo, 1370/1951). In his footnotes at-Tanji supplies ample bibliographical references concerning the personalities Ibn Khaldun mentions in the Autobiography.


The History of Granada, entitled al-I hdlah f i akhbdr Gharndlah, was pub­lished in Cairo, 1319/1901, but the two volumes which appeared do not contain Ibn Khaldun's biography. My knowledge of the work is based upon al-Maqqari, Nafb at-lib (Cairo, 1304/1886-87), IV, 6 ff. Al-Magqari may be assumed to have given a rather complete and literal quotation of Ibn al-Khatlb's text. Al-Maqqari's contemporary, Abmad Baba, Nayl al-ibtihkj (Cairo, 1351/1932, in the margin of Ibn Farbun, Dibdf), p. 169, also quotes, if rather briefly, from Ibn al-Khatib's biography of Ibn Khaldun, Cf. also al-Ghuzuli, Maldli' (Cairo, 1299-1300/1881-83), I, 275.

The volume of the Ibdtah that contains Ibn Khaldun's biography is pre­served in the Escorial, No. 1674 of the recent catalogue. M. Casiri, Bibliotheca Arabico-Hispana Escurialensis (Madrid, 1760-67), II, 105, referred briefly to it, mentioning the list of Ibn Khaldun's works (cf. p. xliv, below). It is strange that this list, as quoted here, includes a reference to Ibn Khaldun's "History of the Arabs in five volumes."


References to it are found in the editor's notes to the Autobiography, p. 67 (n. 1) and index, p. 439.


At present, we know most of these biographies only in excerpts quoted by as-SakhAwi (1427/28-1497), in his I)aw' al-ldmi' (Cairo, 1353-55/ 1934-36), IV, 145-49. A collection of all biographical accounts, as preserved in MSS and printed texts or as reconstructed from quotations, would be of great help for the study of Ibn Khaldun's life.


W. M. de Slane had previously published this biographical account in Journal asiatique, 1114 (1844), 5-60, 187-210, 291-308, 325-53.


Published in Lahore in 1941 and subsequently reprinted there. Enan's work is a translation from the Arabic. A second edition of the Arabic work appeared recently. There is, of course, an ever-growing number of Arabic studies of Ibn Khaldun's life and work.


In Semitic and Oriental Studies Presented to William Popper (University of California Publications in Semitic Philology, No. 11) (Berkeley & Los Angeles, 1951), pp. 103-24.


Berkeley & Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1952.


Published in Paris as Vols. VIII (1940) and XI (1947) of the "Publications de l'Institut d'Etudes Orientales d'Alger."


Cf. Autobiography, pp. 3 f. Quoting Ibn Hazm, Ibn Khaldun relates the genealogy of one Abul-Fadl, a descendant of Kurayb b. Khaldun. Kurayb's pedigree as given in the Autobiography is defective; see Ibn Hazm's original text, Jamharah, ed, E. Levi-Provencal (Cairo, 1948), p. 490, and also 'Ibar, II, 244 f. It is, of course, by no means certain that Abu1-Fadl's and Kurayb's pedigree was accurately traced in any of the sources.

12 Cf. R. Dozy, Histoire des Musulmans d'Espagne (2d ed.; Leiden, 1992), II, 40 ff., 80 ff. Cf. also 'Ibar, IV, 135 f.


Cf. Ibn Hayyan as quoted in the Autobiography, p. 5.


See note 643 to Ch. vi, below.

We have one reference to a certain Ibn Khaldun from the twelfth century, probably a member of the famous Khaldun family. This one is described as a haughty poet in a couplet by Ibn Kisra al-Malagi (d. A.D.1206/7, or 1207/8), quoted by al-Kutubi, Fawat al-Wafayat (Cairo, 1951), I, 261:

You overbearing poet whose ancestor is Khaldun:

You are not satisfied with being vinegar (khall), but also want to be mean (dun).

Cf. also Ibn Sa'id.'Unwdn al-murgisdl (Algiers, 1949), p. 52.


Cf. R. Brunschvig, La Berberie orientate, II, 155 f.


See 2:24, 290, 350 f., 386 f., and 3:302, below.


See 2:16 and 24, below.


Cf. R. Brunschvig, La Berbirie orientate, I, 84 ff.


Cf. E. Levi-Provencal (the owner of the MS), "Un Recueil de lettres officielles almohades," in Hesperis, XXVIII (1941), 1-80, esp. 12 ff.


For the office of doorkeeper, see below, 2:14 ff. Ibn Khaldun also speaks of his grandfather in 'Ibar, VI, 300 f., 304, 311; de Slane (tr.), lI, 384 f., 394, 409.


Ibar, VI, 197, 292; de Slane (tr. ), II, 104, 365. See also 2:222, below.


Cf. GAL, II, 241; Suppl., II, 340.


Most of these men are known to us mainly through Ibn Khaldun. When he does not say much about one of them, there probably was little to say.


Cf. also GAL, I, 306.


See also 3:264 and 471 ff., below.


See also Ibn Khaldun's account in the Muqaddimah, p. 64, below.


As at-Tanji states in the Autobiography, p. 33, this is the correct form of the name, and the original home of al-Abili was Avila in northern Spain. Forms like Abboli, Abull, etc. are not correct; cf. H. P. J. Renaud in Hesperis, XXV (1938), 18-20, 25; G. Marcais, La Berberie musulmane et l'Orient au Moyen Age (Paris, 1946), p. 300. Al-Abili is quoted, 2:197 and 339, below. He also furnished material for the 'Ibar: see, for instance, VII, 91 f., 95, 96, 232; de Slane (tr.), III, 369, 376 f., 379 f.; IV, 167 f.


*F. Rosenthal, The Muslim Concept of Freedom (Leiden, 1960), p. 44.


See also 3:427 ff, below.


On the 'alamah, cf. E. Levi-Provencal in Hesperis, XXVIII (1941), 17 ff.; R, Brunschvig, La Berbirie orientale, II, 61 ff See also 2:26 f. and 62 f., below.


We are told that Abu 'Inan carried a library with him on his expedi­tions. Cf. Ibn Farhan, Dibaj (Cairo, 1351/1932), p. 283.


Cf. 'Ibar, VII, 291; de Slane (tr.), IV, 300.


Cf. Ibn al-Khatib, al-Ihatah, II, 164 f.


Ibid., II, 220 f.


Cf, Autobiography, p. 85. In 1356, Abu 'Inan called Ibn Zarzar to Morocco a second time, but he did not come. Cf. W. J. Fischel, Ibn Khaldun and Tamerlane, pp. 80 f.; M. M. Antufla in al-Andalus, I (1933), 144 (n. 1).


Cf. H. P. J. Renaud in Hesperis, XXV (1938), 27. For the vocalization Ballafiqi, see Autobiography, p. 61, and the vocalization indicated in MSS. C and D of the Muqaddimah, as well as in the verse quoted by Ibn al-Khatib, al- Ihatah, 11, 116. The form appears to refer to a place name composed with "villa," perhaps Villavega? * S. Gilbert in al-Andalus, XXVIII (1963 ), 381 ff


See 2:459 and 3:269 and 407 f., below.


Cf. Autobiography, p. 305.


Cf. Ibn Hajar, ad-Durar al-kaminah (Hyderabad, 1348-50/1929-31), IV, 155-57.


See p. 238 and 3:196, below.


Mubammad b. 'Abdallah, 713-776 [1313-1374]. Cf. GAL, II, 260 ff.; Suppl., II, 372 ff. His "History of Granada" has already been quoted several times as an important source of information for Ibn Khaldun and his time. Ibn Khaldun quotes from his friend repeatedly in the Muqaddimah. However, mention of "Ibn al-Khatib" or "the imam al-Khatib" refers to the great philosopher Fakhr-ad-din ar-Razi; see n. 44 to this Introduction and n. 246 to Ch. III of the Muqaddimah, below. The quotation from Ibn al-Khatib that follows is based on al-Maggari, Nafh at-tib, IV, 11; cf. n. 3, above.


This is the famous poem in praise of Muhammad written by al-Busiri in the thirteenth century. Cf. GAL, I, 264 ff.; Suppl, I, 467 ff. Ibn Khaldun considered a copy of the Burdah a suitable pre3ent for Timur. Cf. Autobiography, p. 377; W. J. Fischel, Ibn Khaldun and Tamerlane, p. 41.


Abu Inan? However, M. Mahdi, Ibn Khaldun's Philosophy of History (London, 1957), p. 42, thinks of Mubammad V of Granada.


See n. 41, above, and p. 402, below. Ahmad Baba, Nayl al-ibtihaj, p. 169, who also quotes Ibn al-Khatib in this connection, has, incorrectly, al-Mahsul, which is another famous work by Fakhr-ad-din ar-Razi.


This would be at the time of Ibn al-Khatib's arrival in Fez in 1359/60.


Since Fakhr-ad-din ar-Razi was commonly known in Ibn Khaldun's circle as Ibn al-Khatib, Ibn al-Khatib claimed the work of his namesake as his own.


The History of Granada contains references to events as late as 1373. However, the work had been published prior to that date. Ibn al-Khatib mentioned a copy of the work in a letter addressed to Ibn Khaldun, dated January 24, 1368; cf. Autobiography, p. 121. One would like to think that Ibn Khaldun worked on this commentary during his stay in Granada in 1363-64.


M. Mahdi, op. cit., p. 297, refers to a hitherto unknown work of Ibn Khaldun on Sufism.


Cf. R. Brunschvig, La Berberie orientale, I, 155 ff. He also was very wealthy, as appears from the amount of personal property confiscated from him by the ruler on one occasion. See p. 368, below.


Cf. Autobiography, pp. 209 ff.


The source for this report is Ibn Qadi Shuhbah. Cf. Autobiography, p. 259 (n. s).


Cf. as-Sakhawi, ad-law' al-lami', IV, 146.


Cf. Autobiography, p. 379; W. J. Fischel, Ibn Khaldun and Tamerlane, p. 43.


Cf. Autobiography, pp. 369 ff: Fischel, op. Cit., p. 34, reads "birthplace" instead of "son," and refers the equally doubtful "secretary" to Ibn Khaldun himself. However, as he explains himself, Ibn Khaldun speaks of Morocco in the context and thus cannot mean his birthplace.


For the mazalim, cf. E. Tyan, Histoire de l'organization judiciaire en pays d'Islam (Annales de 1'Universite de Lyon, Droit, 111) (Paris, 1938­43), II, 141 ff. See also pp. 455 f., below,


For the events of this period, see also G. Marcais, Les Arabes en Berberie du XIe au XIVe siecle (Constantine & Paris, 1913), pp, 310 ff


Cf. Autobiography, p. 143.


See 2:99 ff., below.


Cf. GAL, II, 259; 2d ed., II, 336; Suppl., II, 370.


Cf. Autobiography, p. 229.


Cf. F. Rosenthal, A History of Muslim Historiography (Leiden, 1952), p. 420. Cf. also Ibn Khaldun himself, p. 65, below.


Cf. 'Ibar, V, 436 f. A resume of the information appears later in Vol. VI of the `Ibar. See p. 269, below.


Cf. G. Levi Della Vida, "La traduzione araba delle Storie di Orosio," in Miscellanea Giovanni Galbiati (Fontes ambrosiani, No. 27) (Milan, 1951), III, 185-203, esp. 203. Spanish translation in al-Andalus, XIX (1954), 257-93.


There is very little precise information on libraries in Tunisia at this period. Cf. R. Brunschvig, La Berberie orientate, II, 367 f. There must also have existed many private collections in Tunis.


Cf. GAL, 11, 247; Suppl., II, 547.


Cf. as-Sakhiwi, al-Paw' al-lkmi', IX, 240-42.


Ibid., IV, 146.


Cf. R. Brunschvig, La Berberie orientale, II, 391.


See p lxiv, below


See 3:315, below.


See p. xci, below. The name az-Zahiri, however, did not remain attached to the work.


See, in particular, 2:350, below.


Cf. Autobiography, p. 279 (n. 3).


See p. cv, below.


Cf. asSakhiwi, al-Paw' al-lami, IV, 146.


Cf. Autobiography, p. 339; 'Ibar, V, 480.


See p, x1vi, above.


Cf. W. J. Fischel in Semitic and Oriental Studies Presented to William Popper, pp. 115-17.


If a son of Ibn Khaldun was actually present at the court of Fez (see n. 53, above), it would have been natural for Ibn Khaldun to address himself to the Merinid.


See 3:308 ff, below.


Al-Fasi, the historian of Mecca (1373-1429), quoted the History of Ibn Khaldun in his 'Igd, and around 1425 a certain Muhammad b. Abmad b. Muhammad Ibn az-Zamlakani incorporated excerpts from Ibn Khaldun's History in his Tadhkirah, of which a MS is preserved in Cairo (Egyptian Library, Taymur, adab 604). Ibn az-Zamlakani tells us that he used a MS of the History deposited in the Mu'ayyadiyah Library in Cairo.

As-Suyuti (1445-1505), through his teacher Ibn Hajar, knew of Ibn Khaldun's theory about three generations spanning a century; cf. Nazm, al-'iqyan, ed. P. K. Hitti (New York, 1927), p. 171. Al-Qalqashandi (1355­1418) quoted Ibn Khaldun repeatedly; see nn. 504 and 546 to Ch. iii below.

A late fifteenth-century work, in which Ibn Khaldun's discussion of politics and political ethics was abridged from the Muqaddimah, would be interesting to know. This was the Bada'i' as-silk fi tabai' al-mulk by Muhammad b. 'Ali b. Mubammad b, al-Azraq; cf. al-Maqqari, Analectes, ed. R. Dozy et al. (Leiden, 1855-61), I, 940. Ibn al-Azraq is referred to by as-Sakhawt, ad-law' al-lami', XI, 234, but his biography, which should appear in Daw', VIII, 205, is missing, apparently owing to an omission in the printed edition.


His contemporary Abmad Baba also knew Ibn Khaldun's Autobiography; see 3:395, below, and Nayl al-ibtihaj, pp. 170, 243 ff.


See p. xciv, below.


Mentioned by A. Z. Velidi Togan, Tarihde Usul (Istanbul, 1950), p. 170, as an author familiar with Ibn Khaldun's work; no further information is supplied.

According to A. Adnan Adivar, "Ibn Haldun," in Islam Ansiklopedisi (Istanbul, 1950), V, 740, Ibn Khaldun had been a subject of notice in the encyclopaedia composed by Mubammad b. Ahmad al-'Ajami, a professor in Istanbul who died in 1550. Cf. GAL, II, 453.


Cf F. Babinger, Die Geschichtsschreiber der Osmanen (Leipzig, 1927), p. 212.


Cf. A. Z. Velidi Togan, p. 171, following Z. F. Findikoglu & H. Z. Ulken, Ibn Haldun (Istanbul, 1940). Findikoglu has published another article on the subject of Turkish students of Ibn Khaldun, in Melanges Fuad Koprfilu (Istanbul, 1953), pp. 153-63.


Ibn Khaldun has been claimed as the forerunner of a great many Western scholars, both major and minor. A. Schimmel, Ibn Chaldun (Tubingen, 1951), p. xvii, lists Machiavelli, Bodin, Vico, Gibbon, Montesquieu, Abbe de Mably, Ferguson, Herder, Condorcet, Comte, Gobineau, Tarde, Breysig, and W. James. He has been compared with Hegel, and there is hardly any thinker with whom he might not be compared. Such comparisons may help to evaluate the intellectual stature of the person with whom Ibn Khaldun is compared; certainly they suggest a lesson in scholarly humility. But they do not contribute much to our understanding of Ibn Khaldun.