The text found in Bulaq, A, and B (fihi . . . maqsudahum min kalamihim) is better than that in C and D, which has fihi crossed out and reads kalamina instead of kalamihim, which makes no sense.


Thus, as some people really believe (cf. p. 382, below), poetry may not exist in other languages than Arabic. Ibn Khaldun does not himself believe this; cf. p. 382 and, especially, pp. 412 f. Still, it is hardly correct to suggest, as Bombaci does (p. 469), that Ibn Khaldun is here saying that he is justified in restricting the discussion to Arabic poetry because of the different character of poetic expression in other languages.


Cf. p. 304 (n. 1186), above.


De Slane thinks of shubah "doubts (as to the technical character of the Arab poet's poetical habits)," and Bombaci, p. 469, suggests shibh "a semblance." C and D suggest the reading shabahun. However, a derivation from the root sh-b-h seems hardly possible. Therefore it may be suggested that Ibn Khaldun originally wrote shiyatun "mark, marking, detail." He used the word also above, 1:371, I. 10, and 2:73 (n. 611).


Cf. Bombaci, p. 469.


The discussion of uslub continues down to p. 381.


The metaphors of mold and loom are repeated again and again in the following pages. The metaphor of the loom, in particular, is common in Arabic.


Cf. p. 335, above.


"Any" (kull) is added in the margin of C and in the text of D.


A verse by an-Nabighah adh-Dhubyani. Cf. pp. 397 and 410, below. Cf. H. Derenbourg in Journal asiatique, X116 (1868), 301. Ibn Khaldun certainly did not collect these verses by himself but derived them from an older work that remains to be determined.


I have not so far succeeded in identifying the author of this verse. Doubtless he is a very famous poet, like the others quoted here.


A verse by Imru'u-l-Qays, from the beginning of his famous mu'allaqah. Cf. p. 410, below.


The author of this verse is still unidentified. Cf. n. 1448, above.


Another verse by Imru'u-l-qays, which is quoted by the geographers under al-'Azl.

The word "houses" does not fit the meter. The original text has "litters." Cf, the poet's Diwan, ed. and tr. W. M. de Slane (Paris, 1837), p. 47 (text), p. 70 (tr.).


A verse by Abu Tammam. Cf. Kitab al-Aghani (Bulaq, 1285/1868), XV, 105.


Another verse by Abu Tammam. Cf, his Diwan (Beirut, n.d.), p. 211.


Another verse by Abu Tammam. Cf. Kitab al-Aghani, IX, 98; XV, 107.


This is a verse by ash-Sharif ar-Radi. Cf. his Diwan (Baghdad, 1306/1889), p. 155.


Ibid., p. 267.


A frequently quoted verse by al-Fari'ah bint Tarif, from the elegy in which she mourned her brother al-Walid b. Tarif, who was killed by Yazid b. Mazyad, a general under Harun ar-Rashid. Cf. Ibn 'Abdrabbih, 'Iqd (Cairo, 1305/1887), II, 19; Kitab al-Aghani, XI, 8 ff., quoted in T. Noldeke and A. Miller, Delectus carminum Arabicorum (Berlin, 1890; repr. 1933), p. 99; ad-Dimashqi, al-Isharah ila mahasin at-tijarah, tr. H. Ritter in Der Islam, VII (1917), 61. Ibn Khaldan quotes the verse again, 'Ibar, III, 169.


Ash-Sharif ar-Radi, Diwan, p. 207.


Bulaq, A, and B have fi: "with regard to."


Cf. Issawi, p. 154.


Cf. Bombaci, p. 470. The reference is apparently to pp. 958 ff., above.


Bulaq has "Arabic philology" instead of "word endings (grammar)." In C and D, "or" replaces an earlier "and."


Cf. pp. 368 ff., above.


"To us" is not found in Bulaq.


Cf. Ibn Rashiq, 'Umdah, I, 99 (Ch. xviii).


The lines following, down to "poetry" (1. 19), are not in Bulaq.


This refers to meter, while the following phrase refers to the internal rhyme of the first verse of a poem, and to rhyme in general.


Cf. Bombaci, p. 470, who stresses the fact that Ibn Khaldun explains his definition in logical terminology.


Bulaq: "the Arabs" (instead of "poetry").


For al-Mutanabbi', cf. GAL, I, 86 ff.; Suppl., I, 138 fl: For Abul-'Ala' al-Ma'arri, cf. GAL, I, 254 ff; suppl., I, 449. The latter's millenary celebration in 1944 inspired an especially large amount of literature on him, and some of his works were published. Cf. also p. 386, below.


Cf. p. 373, above, and pp. 412 f., below.


Cf. pp. 392 ff., below.


Umar b. Abi Rabi'ah. Cf. GAL, I, 45 ff.; Suppl., 1, 76 ff.


Cf. GAL, I, 48; Suppl., I, 79. Cf. also 1:407, above, and below.


Cf. GAL, I, 58 f.; Suppl., I, 87 ff.


Cf. GAL, I, 56 ff.; Suppl., I, 86 f.


Cf. 1:36, above.


Cf. GAL, I, 84 f.; Suppl., I, 134 ff.


Cf. GAL, I, 80; Suppl., I, 125 ff.


Cf. GAL, I, 82; Suppl., I, 131 f.


Cf. GAL, 1, 89; Suppl., I,142 ff


Cf, pp. 341 and 366 f., above.


Lit., "to weave on the loom."


The Arabic suffix (unless it should be corrected to refer to "memorized material") has as its nearest antecedent "external literal forms." However, Ibn Khaldun could scarcely have meant it to refer to that.


Bulaq, Paris, and A read istinarah "set afire," against istitharah in B, C, and D.


Through music, or rather, through all the stimulants mentioned here.


Cf. 2:397 ff., above.


"Bath" and not "restfulness" (jamam), as suggested by Bulaq, is confirmed by the MSS and by references to the bath in Ibn Rashiq,' Umdah, I, 185 f.


This statement is derived from the quotations in the 'Umdah, Ch. xxviii, but is not there to be found as such. In general, the impression prevails that Ibn Khaldun did not have a copy of the' Umdah at hand when he wrote the Muqaddimah. Cf., in particular, p. 387 (n. 1502), below.


"Like it" is added by Bulaq. Cf. also Bombaci, p. 470. For. Ibn Rashiq, see p. 338 (n. 1810), above.


The remainder of the sentence is added in the margin of C and incorporated in the text of D.


Muwallad, used as a technical term for persons of mixed Arab and non-Arab parentage, is applied in literary criticism to designate the early poets who were born after the coming of Islam, and, more generally, all the older Islamic poets.


Cf. Ibn Rashiq, 'Umdah, I, 216.


Cf. Bombaci, p. 470.


Ibrahim b. Abi I-Fath, ca. 451 [1059/60] to 533 [1139]. Cf. GAL, I, 272; Suppl., I, 480 f. Abu Bakr is found in A and B, whereas the words are deleted in C and D. According to a marginal note in Bulaq, its MSS seem to vacillate between Abu Bakr and Abu Ishaq, the latter being the usual patronymic of Ibn Khafajah.


Cf. p. 382, above.


Cf. p. 409, below.


Cf. R. Dozy in Journal asiatique, XIV6 (1869), 172 ff.


This and the following sentence not in Bulaq.


Cf. pp. 394 f., below.


Wa-yaghziru (thus vocalized) is added in C and D. Cf. Lane's Arabic­English Dictionary, p. 2246a.


Actually, the following poem is quoted in Ibn Rashiq, 'Umdah, II, 108 f., and there attributed to the same Nishi who wrote the very similar poem quoted below, p. 389 (n. 1506).


Yatahalla, as expressly indicated in C. The reading yatahalla (cf. Ibn Rashiq, 'Umdah, loc. cit.) is possible theoretically but not, apparently, intended here. The latter would mean: "its beauty is revealed by those who recite it."


 Ibn Rashiq reads 'lfta "you should loathe."


However, since the idea expressed here is unusual and does not agree with what the following poem says in connection with the same topic, one may try this, admittedly difficult, rendering:

You should admit no consolation whatever. You should cause

The tears that are stored up in (your) eyes (to run) smoothly.


Bulaq: "close to."


The name of the poet is added in C and D. According to Ibn Rashiq, 'Umdah, he is identical with the author of the preceding poem, the elder Nashi, Abul-'Abbas 'Abdallah b. Muhammad, who died in 293 [905/61. Cf. GAL, 1, 123 f.; Suppl., I, 188. The verses were quoted by an-Nashi in his book on poetry. Cf. al-Hugri, Zahr al-adab (Cairo, 1293/1876), II, 249 f.; (Cairo, 1505/1887, in the margin of Ibn 'Abdrabbih, 'Iqd), II, 240 f. Al-Husri has two verses not found in our text and, in one place, has the verses in a different order. Ibn Rashiq, 'Umdah, II, 109 f., has the same transposition found in al-Husri but has no additional verses. He omits the fourth verse and the last. In this connection, it should be noted that the fourth, and the last six, verses were added in the margin of C and incorporated in the text of D.


Wa-ra'abta. Al-Hugri uses la'amta, with the same meaning.


This verse, which is found only in C and D, seems to have been read by Ibn Khaldun: wa-'amadta minhu munajjidan man yqtdy, but man makes no sense and should, at least, be corrected to ma. Al-Husri has wa-'ahidta minhu li-kulli amrin yaqtadi:, which seems to be the correct text.


For shu'un and its use in the meaning of "tear (ducts)," cf. J. M. Pefuela, "Die Goldene" des Ibn al-Munasif (Rome, 1941), pp. 77 ft.


Instead of musta'manan, Ibn Rashiq has mustay'isan (distorted in al­Husri to mustasbiyan): "In despair because of," which seems to be the better text.


Cf. R. Dozy in Journal asiatique, XIV6 (1869), 174.


The difficult last verse is reproduced in a rather different, and apparently quite meaningless, form in al-Husri, and is not found in Ibn Rashiq.