Therefore, they did not say anything about the position of sorcery.


C (in the margin) and D add: "by Ibn Wahshiyah." Cf. p. 151, above.


Cf. A. Hauber, "Tomtom (Timtim) = Dandamiz = Dindymus?" in Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft, LXIII (1909), 457­72; (Pseudo-) Majrili, Ghayah, ed. H. Ritter (Leipzig & Berlin, 1933), p. 193; Carra de Vaux, in P. Tannery, Memoires scientfiques (Toulouse & Paris, 1920), IV, 302 f. The title of the work mentioned by Ibn Khaldun appears in slightly different forms.


The legendary founder of Muslim alchemy. Cf. GAL, I, 244 f.; Suppl., I, 426 ff ; P. Kraus, Jabir Ibn Hayyan. Cf. also pp. 228 and 269, below.


Cf, p. 245, below.


Cf. L1:212, above.


Cf also pp. 393 f., below. For the basic theme, that the soul is one in species, different in powers, cf., for instance, Ibn Sini, Kitdb an-.Najdh (Rome, 1593), p. 53.


The Paris ed. adds: "to exchange human spirituality with angelic spirituality and to become an angel in the very moment the exchange takes place. This is the meaning of revelation, as has been mentioned in the proper place [1:199, above]. In this condition, the (prophetic souls) attain divine knowledge, are addressed ..." This addition is not found in Bulaq nor in the MSS. A, B, C, or D.


Cf. 1:184 ff and 199, above. 158


Qur'an 2.102 (96). For the dogma of the reality of sorcery in Islam and medieval Christianity, cf. E. Doutti, Magie et religion dans l'Afrique du Nord (Algiers, 1908), pp. 336 ff.


The reference to the $abi i is added in the margin of C and in the text of D.


The well of Dharwan was located in Medina. References to the tradi­tion of the spell cast over Mubammad are found in Handbook, p. 161 b. Cf. also the commentaries on the Mu'awwidhatan, the last two surahs of the Qur'an.


Qur'an 113.4 (4). The verb translated as "blow" could also mean "spit." Cf p. 168, below.


Cf. p. 168, below.


Cf. p. 113, above.


It seems that Ibn Khaldun used ta'lif and tafriq here in the sense of the terms mu'talif and muftariq of the science of tradition. Cf. 2:451 (n. 116), above. He may have wanted to say that the similarity between the real person and the picture of him made by the sorcerer was like that of homonyms.


That is, either an actual picture of him or a symbolic representation.


That is, he places the spell into some object (cf. the just-mentioned story of the spell cast over Mubammad) and thus makes a magical "knot."


Cf. p. 164, below.


Fa yantajithu.


Cf, p. 245, below.


220:110+65+44+22+20+11+10+5+4+2+1= 284.


For the theory of "loving numbers" among the Arabs, cf. M. Steinschneider in Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft, XXIV (1870), 967-69; S. Gandz in Saadia Anniversary Volume (New York, 1943), pp. 155-58. For a modern treatment of the problem, cf. E. B. Escott, "Amicable Numbers," Scripta Mathematica, XII (1946), 61-72.


Cf. 2:213, above.


(Pseudo-)Majriti speaks of "loving numbers" in the Ghayah, p. 278. A less complicated procedure was to eat cakes on which the loving numbers were inscribed; cf. T. Canaan in Berytus, IV (1937), 93. Cf. also Tashkopruzadeh, Miftah as-sa'adah (Hyderabad, 1329-56/1911-37), I, 332.


Cf. Bombaci, p. 459.


Cf. W. Ahrens in Der Islam, VII (1917), 215. Strangely enough, B and D (but not A or C) read tali' "ascendant (of Leo)," instead of taba'.


Cf n. 776.


Cf. R. Dozy in Journal asiatique, XIV6 (1869), 164 f.


Each sign of the zodiac is divided into three "faces" (wajh), Greek prosopon, Latin facies, of ten degrees each. Cf. (Pseudo-) Majriti, Ghdyah, pp. 126 ff. Cf. also p. 199, below, and A. Bouche-Leclerq, L'Astrologie grecque (Paris, 1899), pp. 215 ff.


Cf. Dozy, op. cit., pp. 165 f. Cf. German aufheben "to lift, to abolish, to preserve."


The Ghayah, pp. 35 f., mentions a simpler but rather similar talisman to be used against stones in the bladder, in Arabic designated by the same word as "pebbles."


Cf. W. Ahrens, op. cit., pp. 215 f., who states that this square is rather a combination of four nine-field squares.


Many MSS of the work are preserved; cf. GAL, I, 507; Suppl., I, 923 f.; GAL (2d ed.), 1, 669. Any doubt as to its authenticity was removed by H. Ritter, who found a reference to the Sirr in one of the works of Fakhr­ad-din ar-Razi himself. See Der Islam, XXIV (1937), 285 (n. 2). The work as such speaks rather for, than against, the great philosopher's authorship.


Cf. p. 161, above.


Cf. Bombaci, p. 459.


The correctness of the reading seems to be certain. The meaning and derivation are uncertain. The word may refer to khinzir "pig, boar." Khinziriyah "piggishness" occurs, for instance, in ar-Raghib al-Isfahani, Muhddardt (Cairo, 1287/1870), I, 431. However, it may be derived from a proper name, such as that of the Ibn Abi Khinzir family, which provided governors for Sicily in the tenth century.


Bulaq: "express that fact as follows: We act only upon ..."


"That have monetary value."


Cf. Bombaci, p. 459.


C, at least, clearly indicates the reading habi "rope," and not jabot "mountain." Ropedancers would certainly be a much more familiar picture in the medieval Muslim world than mountain climbers.

This example of the effects of imagination occurs in Avicenna and Averroes and in later Western literature, as shown by S. van den Bergh, "Pascal, Montaigne, et Avicenne," in Millenaire d'Avicenne: Congres de Bagdad (Cairo, 1952), pp. 36-38; and idem, Averroes' Tahafut al-Tahafut (E, J. W. Gibb Memorial Series, N.S. No. 19) (Oxford & London, 1954),11, 174 f.


Cf. p. 175, below.


Cf. 1:188, and p. 100, above.


Cf. 1:191, above.


Cf. Qur'an 7.117 (114); 26.45 (44). Cf also p. 245, below.


Cf. p. 160, above.


"In a believing state of mind" is an addition of C and D. C has the words in the margin.


Cf. A. Christensen, L' Iran sous les Sassanides (2d ed.; Copenhagen, 1944), pp. 502-4. The words mean "royal banner," but legend referred the word kavyan to a mythical smith, Kavagh by name, who tied his leather apron to a lance and led the revolt against the tyrant Dahagh. The Arabic descriptions of the actual banner used at the end of the Sassanian empire, cited by Christensen, mentioned its great value but are not very clear or trustworthy. Ibn Khaldun's description would certainly seem to reflect a fictional motif.

As the MSS show, Ibn Khaldun read Dargash Kabiyan.


Apparently this is what is meant. Cf. E. Wiedemann in Der Islam, VIII (1918), 96 f., against W. Ahrens, Der Islam, VII (1917), 217. G. Bergstrasser refers to two such squares from al-Khalwati, an-Nur as-sati'; cf. Der Islam, XIII (1923), 231. Cf. also al-Buni, in a work (or excerpt from a larger work, the Shams al-ma'arif) which in two recent Cairo reprints, one undated, the other dated 1368/1939, goes under such titles as Sharh ism Allah al-a'zam and al-Lu'lu' al-manzum fi t-talasim wa-n-nujum, p. 74.


Qur'an 7.118 (115).


Cf. Bombaci, p. 469.


This is the famous, constantly quoted hadith (cf. Concordance, I, 271 b) that Abu Dawitd, the author of one of the canonical hadith collections, considered one of four traditions containing all the knowled a of traditions anyone needed. The other three are: "Actions (are judged by intentions"; "a believer is a believer only when he wants for his brother the same things he wants for himself"; and "it is clear what is permitted, and it is clear what is forbidden. In between are ambiguous matters." Cf. al-Khatib al-Baghdidi, Ta'rikh Baghdad, IX, 57. Cf. pp. 251 and 299, below.


Cf. 1:188, and pp. 100 and 167, above.


Cf. p. 100, above.


Cf. p. 167, above.


Qur'an 2.142 (136), 213 (209), etc.


Cf. E. Doutte, Magie et religion dans l'Afrique du Nord, p. 318.


The following three lines are not in Bulaq.


Cf. Bombaci, p. 460.


Doutte, op. cit., pp. 322 f., refers to different school opinions regarding the evil eye.