Medicine was treated as a craft above, 2:373 II.


This reference to Galen's De usu partium is added in C and D. Cf. also 1:90, above.


The Arabs had more historically accurate data on Galen's life, but the misinformation that Ibn Khaldun presents was widely known, although usually rejected as wrong. Cf. R. Walzer, Galen on Jews and Christians (Oxford, 1949), pp. 92 ff.; G. Levi Della Vida in Journal of the American Oriental Society, LXX (1950), 184. Cf, also Sibt Ibn al-Jawzi, Mir'at al-zaman, Pt. II (MS. Koprulu, photostat Cairo, Egyptian Library, ta'rikh 551, pp. 41 f., III, 114), who refers to Pseudo-Ghazzali, Sirr al-'alamayn. Cf., further, 'Ibar, II, 188; and, most recently, G. Vajda in Annuaire de l'Institut de Philologie et d'Histoire Orientales et Slaves, XIII (1953), pp. 641-52.


Muhammad b. Zakariya' (Rhazes), 251-313 [865-925]. Cf. GAL, I, 233 ff.; Suppl., I, 417 ff.


'Ali b. al-'Abbas [tenth century]. Cf. GAL, I, 237; Suppl., I, 423.


Abd-al-Malik b. Zuhr (Avenzoar), d. 557 [1162]. Cf. GAL, I, 487; Suppl., I, 890.


Actually, medicine is considered a basic craft (2:355 f., above), though one needed only in cities. See 2:376 f., above.


For this legendary physician, whose lifetime is said to have spanned the period from Muhammad to Mu'awiyah, cf. Ibn Abi Usaybi'ah, I,109-13; tr. B. R. Sanguinetti, Journal asiatique, V 5 (1855), 403-19. Ibn Khallikan, tr. W. M. de Slane, IV, 253 f. Some of the stories connected with him are reproduced in C. Elgood, A Medical History of Persia (Cambridge, 1951), pp. 66-68.

729 C and D have: "traditions concerned with the medicine of the Prophet" (an-nabawiyat instead of ash-shar'iyat).

Muhammad had advised some people to try a different method of fecundation, but his method proved a failure. Cf. I. Goldziher, Die Zahiriten, pp. 82 f.

731 "And" is not found in B.
732 Cf. al-Bukhari, Sahih, IV, 57: "A person came to the Prophet and said: 'My brother has diarrhea.' The Prophet said: 'Give him honey to drink.' He did so. Then, he said: 'I gave him honey to drink, but it only made his diarrhea worse.' Whereupon Muhammad said: 'God speaks the truth. Your brother's stomach lies.' " Cf. also Concordance, I, 191b. The story does not exactly illustrate the point Ibn Khaldun wants to make.