Cf. also pp. 246 ff. and 295 ff., below.


Cf Issawi, pp. 167 f.


Cf. Bombaci, p. 457.


Hukmi is added in C supra lineam, and in the text of D. Cf. P. 248, below.


Cf. pp. 115 f., above; pp. 153 and 249, below.


Al fass. The word occurs in individual titles of Aristotle's works on logic in Arabic. Cf. Ibn an-Nadim, Fihrist (Cairo, 1348/1929-30), pp. 368 and 370. However, it is not commonly used for the Organon, and I am not sure from which author (Averroes) cf. below, p. 254) Ibn Khaldun derived it. Cf. also E. I. J. Rosenthal in al-Andalus, XX (1955), 80.

Among the most recent works concerned with Arabic translations of the so-called Organon, we may mention the work by 'Abd-ar-Rabmin Badawi, of which three volumes have appeared so far (Cairo, 1948-), and the publication of Porphyry's Isagoge by A. F. al-Ahwani (Cairo, 1371/1952). Cf., in particular, R. Walzer, "New Light on the Arabic Translations of Aristotle," Oriens, VI (1953), 91-142.


"Three" appears in A, possibly as a correction of an erased word. B, C, and D have "four." This seems to be an error on the part of Ibn Khaldun, who was thinking of the Eisagoge and included it in his count. Bulaq corrects the following "five" to "four," which is nonsensical.


The Arabic word used here should probably be read al-mu'arrifat, and not, as might be thought at first glance, al-ma'rifat "various kinds of knowledge," even though Aristotle speaks about gnosis right at the beginning of the work.


Cf p. 145, below.


In contrast to syllogisms based on logical judgment. Cf. F. Gabrieli, "Estetica e poesia araba nell'interpretazione della Poetica Aristotelica presso Avicenna e Averroe," Rivista degli studi orientali, XII (1929-30), 298.


The remainder of this sentence and the next one are not found in Bulaq.


The reference is to Porphyry's Isagoge and the pente fwnai (quinque voces): -gnoz (genus); diafora (differentia); eidoz (species); idion (proprium); and sumbebhkoz (accidens). Cf. again, p. 145, below.


The beginning of the section on logic from the Shifa' has been published by I. Madkur, M. al-Khudayri, M.-M. Anawati, and A. F. al-Ahwani (Cairo, 1371/1952), as the first volume of the planned publication of the whole Shifd'. The section on al-Burhan (Apodeictica), published by 'Abd-ar­Rabmin Badawi, appeared in Cairo in 1954.


The "whereas" clause is not found in Bulaq.


Cf. 1:402, above.


Mubammad b. Nimwar, 690-646 [1194-1248]. Cf. GAL, I, 463; Suppl., I, 838. His Jumal were discussed in the circle of Ibn Khaldun's friends, as we learn from Ibn al-Khatib, al-Ihatah fi akhbar Gharnalah (Cairo, 1319/ 1901), II, 158 f. Ibn Khaldun himself knew them by heart; cf. p. 396, below.


The works I checked indicate the titles of the last two works as al-Mujiz and al-Jumal, without mukhtasar. The word mukhtasar, as it is used here, cannot mean "brief work" (which would be correct), but only "abridgement of a work entitled Mujiz, etc." (which would not be correct).


The following discussion, to the end of the section (p. 147), is not found in Bulaq.


Cf. 1:394, and pp. 44 and 63, above.


Cf. pp. 48 f., above. The reference is to the four attributes of power, knowledge, life, and volition.


Cf. p. 146, below, where Ibn Khaldun speaks about the outside ex­istence of natural quiddities and their universals. This appears to be meant here.


Cf. p. 51, above.


Cf. S. Munk, Melanges de philosophic juive et arabe (Paris, 1869), pp. 397 ff.


Cf. p. 51, above. The reversed statement in this case would be: Since the articles of faith are correct, the arguments proving them must be correct.


Cf. p. 142, above.


Cf. p. 141, above.


A1-qiyas as-suri. My limited knowledge of Arabic logic prevents me from stating whether, or where, this expression may occur as a technical term for some kind of syllogism. However, it may not be a technical term, in which case the above translation may render the thought perfectly well: the only thing that remains is studying the forms of syllogism, not their matter.


Cf. at-Tahanawi, Kashshaf istilahat al-funun, pp. 904 f.


Cf. pp. 50 f., above.


Cf. Bombaci, p. 458.