Sic C and D. The earlier texts read: "the existing things and their accidents."

578 "Negatively or positively" is added in C and D.
579 Cf. p. 129, below.
580 Ibn Khaldun devotes no special section to music, though he seems originally to have intended to do so. Cf. 2:339, above.


That is, elementary arithmetic.


Cf. Qur'an 2.102 (96). The passage refers to Babel, but it would be difficult to include the Persians and the Greeks, in addition to the Copts, among the antecedents of "them" in the preceding sentence. Cf. p. 159, below. For al-matluw, cf. 1:192, 260, and 437, above; p. 284, below.


The sorcerers of Pharaoh, as described in the Qur'an.


Cf. p. 160, below. Instead of "informed persons," A and B simply have "people" (ahl al-'alam).


The translation follows the reading ikhtiyariha of C and D. Ikhtibariha "their exploration," as in A and B, also yields a satisfactory meaning.


The word "however," which is not found in the slightly different text of Bulaq, seems to express some misgivings as to how the Muslims could have found so many books if Alexander had appropriated (and, after their translation, destroyed) them at a much earlier date.


This is a variant of the famous legend, according to which 'Umar ordered the destruction of the celebrated library in Alexandria. Cf., for instance, M. Meyerhof, "Joannes Grammatikos (Philoponos) von Alexandrien and die arabische Medizin," Mitteilungen des Deutschen Instituts fur Agyptische Altertumskunde in Kairo, II (1991), 9 f.

Ibn Khaldun, 'Ibar, III, 597, mentions that after the conquest of Baghdad in 1258, the Tatars threw many scientific books into the Tigris, thus imitat­ing what the Muslims had done at the beginning of Islam with the books and sciences of the Persians. Cf. also 2:219, above.


Cf. 'Ibar, II, 188: Since Plato (sic) walked while teaching in a stoa, his, pupils were called "Peripatetics." Knowing little about the Stoics, the inability of the Arabs to distinguish clearly between Stoics and Peripatetics is easily explained.


Cf. B. Heller in El, s.v. "Lullman." The Greek sage considered to have lived at the time of King David and to have studied with Luqman, is said to have been Empedocles. Cf. M. Asin Palacios, "Ibn Masarra y su escuela," in Obras Escogidas, I, 55.


For this confusion of Socrates with Diogenes, cf., for instance, al­Mubashshir b. Fatik, Mukhtar al-hikam, on the life of Socrates; al-Qifti, Ta'rikh al-hukama', ed. Muller-Lippert (Leipzig, 19os), p. 197; F. Rosenthal in Islamic Culture, XIV (1940), 388.


Cf. also 1:275 (n. 75), above, and pp. 116, 139, 153, and 249, below.


Cf. p. 6, above. Mukhalladah is clearly indicated in A, B, and C.


Cf. Bombaci, p. 457.


For the following remarks, cf. p. 250, below.


Ikhtassuhu, as in Bulaq, A, B, and C.


Mubammad b. Yahya, d. 533 [1138/39]. Cf. GAL, I, 460; suppl., I, 830. Cf. also p. 443, below.


The reference to Jabir was added when Ibn Khaldun was in the East. It is found in the margin of C and in the text of D.


Qur'an 6.137 (138). Cf. also Qur'an 6.112 (112).


Cf. Bombaci, p. 457.


Masud b. 'Umar, 722-792 [1322-1390]. Cf. GAL, II, 215; Suppl., II, 301 ff. The date of his birth seems to be correct as indicated (cf. C. A. Storey in EI, s.v. "al-Taftazani"), although Ibn Hajar, ad-Durar al-kaminah (Hyderabad, 1348-50/1929-31), IV, 350, and the other biographers cited in GAL, who follow Ibn Hajar, have 712 [1312/13]. Cf. also p. 315, below.

Ibn Khaldun seems to have said, "numerous works on the intellectual sciences," but Bulaq is certainly correct in omitting this addition. A correction to "on the traditional sciences," found in a minor MS, has nothing to recommend itself.


Qur'an 3.13 ( 11). Bulaq completes the quotation.


Qur'an 28.68 (68).