Cf. Bombaci, p. 457.


Of course, Greek works on dream interpretation, such as Artemidorus, were translated into Arabic. A fourteenth-century copy of his work, containing the first three books, is preserved in Istanbul University (Arabca yazma 4726). Artemidorus is also quoted, for instance, by ad-Damiri, Mayawan; cf. J. de Somogyi in Journal asiatique, CCXIII (1928), 113. Cf. also M. Stein­schneider, Centralblatt fur Bibliothekswesen (Leipzig, 1893), Beiheft XII, 105.


Cf. surah 12.


Cf. 1:208 f., above, and p. 107, below.


Cf. 1:209, above,


Cf. Abu Dawud, Sunan (Cairo, 1910/1892-99, in the margin of az­Zurqani, Sharh al-Muwatta'), IV, 236, who reports Muhammad's question and continues with Muhammad saying that "the only (kind of) prophecy remaining after my death will be good dream visions."


For the following discussion, cf. 1:209 ff., above.


Cf. 1:211 f., above. The distinction Artemidorus makes at the beginning of his work, between different kinds of dreams, appears in the Arabic translation under the heading of "Distinction between dream visions and confused dreams."


The following discussion, down to p. 107,1. 21, is not found in Bulaq or A.


Zaman fard "time atom" or "atomic time." Cf. p. 144, below.


Qur'an 75.16-19 (16-19).


Cf 1:208 f, and p. 105, above.


The interpretation of the ocean as ruler and the serpent as enemy was known to Artemidorus Oneirocritica iii. 16. ii. 13. The comparison of women with vessels in this context is of Islamic origin, but does not appear to have been generally accepted in Muslim works on dream interpretation. It is not mentioned by (Pseudo-) Ibn Sirin, in Ta'blr ar-ru'ya (Cairo, 1298/1881), or in his Muntakhab al-kalam fi tafsir al-ahlam (Cairo, 1301/1883-84, in the margin of Vol. I of 'Abd-al-Ghani an-Nabulusi, Ta'tir al-anam fi ta'bir al-manam). But al-Kirmini, as quoted by Ibn Shahin, al-Isharat fi 'ilm al-'ibarat (Cairo, 1301/1883-84, in the margin of Vol. II of 'Abd-al-Ghani an-Nabulusi), II, 383, compares vessels and the like with women and servants. The equation of ocean with ruler and serpent with enemy appears in Ibn Sirin, Ta'bir, pp. 12, 43; Muntakhab, I, 186 f.; Ibn Shahin, op. cit., II, 102,359; 'Abd-al-Ghani an-Nabulusi, op. cit., I, 56 ff., 200 ff


Cf. 1:211 f., above.


Cf. Bombaci, p. 457.


An agitated ocean may indicate worry and fear, and a snake is said to indicate an enemy who conceals his enmity. Cf. Ibn Sirin, Ta'bir, pp. 12, 42; and Muntakhab, I, 187; 'Abd-al-Ghani an-Nabulusi, op. cit., I, 58. The various possibilities of interpreting ocean and snake, quoted by Ibn Shahin (II, 203, 360) in the name of Jafar as-Sadiq, agree with Ibn Khaldun's statement only in so far as the snake may indicate a livelihood ('aysh). However, Ibn Khaldun may have found his examples in the literature quoted on p. 110, which was not available to me.

In C and D the reference to life precedes that to concealing a secret. It may be noted that the snake, as a symbol of Asclepius, signified length of life. Cf. F. Rosenthal, "An Ancient Commentary on the Hippocratic Oath," Bulletin of the History of Medicine, XXX (1956), 70 f.


Cf. 2:332, above, and p. 300, below.


He died in 110 [778/79]. Cf. GAL, I, 66; suppl.,1, 102. There can be no doubt that his fame as dream interpreter is unhistorical, and the works ascribed to him pseudepigraphical.

A large list of titles of Muslim works on dream interpretation is found at the end of W. Ahlwardt's description of such works preserved in Berlin: Die Handschriften-Verzeichnisse . . . Verzeichniss der arabischen Handschriften, III, 574 ff.


Al-Kirmani's work is mentioned in the tenth century, in Ibn an-Nadim, Fihrist (ed. Flugel), p. 316; (Cairo, 1348/1929-30), p. 439. As-Salimi, who quotes it, gives his names as Abu Ishaq Ibrahim; cf. W. Ahlwardt, op. cit., III, 578, No. 4270. Quotations of his work seem also to be preserved in a MS in Paris, referred to in GAL, Suppl., II, 1039 (No. 21). Cf. also ibid., I, 433.


No further information on him is available.


Muhammad b. Ahmad b. `Umar. Cf. GAL, Suppl., I, 102 (where Ishaq al-Qaramani should read Abu Ishaq al-Kirmani), and 11, 1040 (No. 32). He was a contemporary of Ibn Khaldun, as shown by the fact that he quotes Ibn Rashid in his work. Cf. W. Ahlwardt, loc. cit.


"And briefest" (wa-akhsariha) in C and D. The reading is not quite certain. The work could hardly be called the "briefest." It may be "most comprehensive" (ahrar). "Most accessible" (ahdar) seems unlikely.


Cf. n. 250 to this chapter, above. His Marqabah al-'ulya is quoted by as :Salimi; cf. n. 573 to this chapter, above. Is it identical with the work men­tioned in GAL, Suppl., II, 1041, under the title ad-Durr ath-thamin fi 'ilm at-tafsir?

The sentence referring to Ibn Rashid is found in D.


Qur'an 9.78 (79). Cf. also Qur'an 5.109 (108), 116 (116); 34.48 (47).