This section was treated in monograph form in a doctoral dissertation by H. Frank, Beitrag zur Erkenntniss des Sufismus nach Ibn Haldun (Leipzig, 1884). However, at the time Frank wrote his dissertation, no beginner could be expected to make any substantial contribution to the subject.


The "bench" refers to "the people of the bench," ascetics of Muham­mad's time whose gathering place was the benches in the Mosque of Medina.

The "row" refers to the rows formed by the Muslims in prayer. The Sufis were supposed to be always in the first row, because of their constant practice of divine worship. But there are also slightly different explanations. Cf., for instance, Hujwiri, Kashf al-mahjub, tr. R. A. Nicholson, p. 37: "Sufis are those who have 'cleansed' (safat) their spirits and thus entered the first 'row' (saff) before the Truth."


Ibn Khaldun's rather free quotation is derived from the beginning of the chapter on tasawwuf in `Abd-al-Karim b. Hawizin al-Qushayri, Risalah (Cairo, 1367/1948), p. 126. His dates are 376-465 [986-10721; cf. GAL, I, 432 ff; Suppl., I, 770 ff. For these and other etymologies of Sufi, cf. L. Massignon in El, s.v. "Tapwwuf." Modern scholarship is inclined to share Ibn Khaldun's opinion that Sufi is derived from suf "wool."


Mawajid is by no means as common a term in Sufi literature as Ibn Khaldun's casual use of it suggests. The form mawajid is occasionally found in the older sources. At least, this is the form used in the printed editions at our disposal. Silvestre de Sacy paid no attention to the difference in form between mawajid and mawajid, both of which he knew, and considered mawdjid a plural of wajd. Cf. Notices et extraits des manuscrits de la Bibliotheque diu Roi, XII (1831), 299 (n.1), 315 (n. 1). He was followed in this respect by de Slane, in his translation of the Muqaddimah, I, 84 (n. 1); III, 86 (n. 4); and by Dozy, in his Supplement aux dictionnaires arabes, II, 782. The meaning "ecstatic experience" thus obtained, certainly renders Ibn Khaldun's under­standing of the word accurately. However, Silvestre de Sacy's suggestion oversimplifies matters too much, and it still remains to be seen how, precisely, Ibn Khaldun derived mawajid from the many-colored root w -j-d. Al­Qushayri's use of mawdjid seems to suggest that mawdjid are the result of wajd. Cf. his Risalah, p. 34. As-Suhrawardi, whose 'Awarif al-ma`aruf Ibn Khaldun mentions as another standard work on Sufism, occasionally refers to mawajid. In one passage, mawajid is paired with mawahib "(divine) gifts," and both mawajid and mawahib, as "found" and "given" states of mystical illumination, are contrasted with "acquired" states. Cf. his 'Awarif (Cairo, 1352/1933, in the margin of al-Ghazzali, Ihya'), IV, 249 f. This presupposes that mawajid is considered a plural of mawjud, in the meaning of "things found." The form mawajid may have resulted from association of the term with mawahib.


Sic B. A, C, and D: "idea." Bulaq: "spirit."


Cf., for instance, 2:411, above.


Bulaq corrects the text to: "grief or joy . , ."


Cf. 2:36, above.


As a technical term in Sufism, natijah "result" is identical with "state" or "station."


Lit., "taste," the common mystical term for mystical experience. For "taste" as a term of literary criticism, see pp. 358 ff., below.


The opposite of "acts of disobedience," i.e., sins. Acts of obedience are as positively required as sins are forbidden.


The suggested reading al-ijra' "to perform" (Bombaci, p. 456) is not supported by MSS. B, C, or D, which clearly indicate the reading al-ijza'.


"In instruction" is added by C in the margin, and appears in D in the text.


Cf. p. 63, above. The Ri'ayah was edited by Margaret Smith in 1940 as No. 15 of the E. J. W. Gibb Memorial Series, N.s. A translation has been prepared by K. Schoonover; cf. Muslim World, XXXIX (1949), 26-35.


Umar b. Mubammad, 539-632 [1145-1234/35]. Cf. GAL, l, 440 f.; Suppl., I, 788 ft. Cf. also A. J. Arberry in Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies, XIII (1950), 359-56.


Cf. Issawi, pp. 175 f.


Omitted in C and D.


The famous Sufi ritual. Cf. D. B. Macdonald in EI, s.v. "Dhikr."


Cf. p. 102, below.


Bulaq adds "'Uthman"!


Cf. 1:460, above; pp. 85 and 102, below.


Min al-'arsh ila t-tashsh. Bombaci, p. 466, accepts the ingenious emendation found in some Egyptian editions of the Muqaddimah, of tashsh to farsh "field, earth." Cf. ibid., (Cairo, 1327/1909), p. 524. However, the MSS do not support this emendation. C even explains (ashsh in the margin as "light rain."

The book on riyadat an-nafs (mystical exercise) in al-Ghazzali's Ihya', III, 42 ff., does not contain the phrase, nor have I succeeded in locating the passage elsewhere in the Ihya'.


Cf. Issawi, p. 176.


Used in approximately the sense of "staunch faith."


Cf. 1:198 (n. 277), above. However, when Ibn Khaldun uses wijdani in connection with Sufism, he probably associates it in his mind with mawajid, translated here as "ecstatic (experience)." Cf. p. 77, above.


The following discussion, down to p. 87, 1. 5, is found on a special inserted slip in C, and appears incorporated in the text of D.


The second meaning of separateness is discussed on p. 8.5, 11. 12 ff.


Hadhihi 1-maqalah'ald hadha t-taqdir: C and D.


Tajsim: declaring that God is corporeal. Tashbih: declaring that God is similar (to human beings).


Mahall is especially familiar to Ibn Khaldun as a legal term. Cf. p. 5 (n. 171), above, and D. Santillana, Istituzioni di diritto musulmano malichita, II, 729.


C and D read wa-la mudrik wa-la ma'uf (D: mas'uf or ma'suf). Possibly the last word must be corrected to mean "not perceiving and not un­perceiving." In the above translation mudrik has been corrected to mudirr. The Paris edition has a completely different text: "not able to write and not illiterate."


'Abdallah b. Muhammad, d. 658 [1260]. Cf. GAL, I, 889; suppl., 1, 672. His work was not available for checking, so that the exact character and extent of the quotation could not be ascertained. It probably extends to the end of the paragraph.


Cf. 1:198, and p. 85, above.


La annahu: C and D.


Only C has "concerning their imams."


The suffix clearly refers to the immediately preceding "Shi'ah." However, Ibn Khaldun does not speak only of the Shi'ah, but includes the Sufis who hold similar opinions.


Cf. pp. 90 f., below.


Mazhar is understood by al-Farghani as the "place where something manifests itself." Cf. also p. 88 (n. 496), below.


According to the edition of his Muntahd al-maddrik ([Istanbul,] 1293/1876), his names were Sa'id-ad-din Mubammad b. Ahmad. GAL, I, 262; Suppl., I, 463, gives, apparently incorrectly, Sa'id b. 'Abdallah. He lived ca. 700 [1300]. Ibn Khaldun bravely tries to compress al-Farghani's highly involved discussion into a few words. However, he is not quite successful in reproducing the terminology of his source with complete exactness.


The famous Ta'iyah of 'Umar b. al-Faris, 577-632 [1182-1235]. Cf. GAL, I, 262 f.; Suppl., I, 462 tf.


Al-Farghani, op. cit., I, 9 ff., says that ahadiyah and wahidiyah result from wahdah.


"As such" refers to revelation. The masculine pronoun of the Arabic text, unless one wants to correct it to the feminine, can hardly be taken to refer to "essence": "revelation of the essence as such."


This hadith qudsi ("tradition in which God appears as the speaker"; cf. 1:193, above) is quoted by al-Farghani, op. cit., I, 5. It appears in Ibn 'Arabi's Futuhat; cf. M. Asin Palacios, "Ibn Masarra y su escuela," in Obras Escogidas (Madrid, 1946), 1, 163 (n. 4). Jalal-ad-din Rumi quotes it over and over again in his Mathnawi Cf. R. A. Nicholson's edition (E. J. W. Gibb Memorial Series, N.s. No. 4)(London, 1925-40), Bk. 1, V. 2862; Bk. n, v. 364; Bk. iv, vv. 2590 ff., 3029. Cf. also H. S. Nyberg, Kleinere Schriften des Ibn al-'Arabi, p. 139.


Cf. al-Farghani, op. cit., I, 23. The expression 'ama'iyah "nubilous" is based upon the following tradition. "Muhammad was asked: 'Where was God before the creation?' He replied: 'He was in a cloud ('amd') above which there was no air and underneath which there was no air.' " The tradition is also quoted, for instance, in al-Mas'udi, Akhbdr az-zaman (Cairo, 1357/ 1938), p. 5; Ibn Kathir, Bidayah, I, 8. Cf. also A. J. Wensinck, Bar Hebraeus' Book of the Dove (Leiden, 1919), pp. CIII-CV.

The terms 'ama'iyah and haba'iyah are those of Ibn 'Arabi. Cf. Asin Palacios, op. cit., I, 97 and 146 f., and the references in the index to A. E. Affifi, The Mystical Philosophy of Muhyid din-Ibnul 'Arabi (Cambridge, 1939). Al-Farghani was a pupil of Sadr-ad-din al-Qonawi, d. 672 [1273]; cf. GAL, I, 449 f ; Suppl., I, 807 f. The latter, in turn, was a pupil of Ibn 'Arabi.

The word "presence" (hadrah) in al-Farghani is nearly synonymous with 'alam "world," mahall "place," and mazhar "manifestation." Cf. Asfn Palacios, op. cit., I, 204 ft. ("La teoria de Las 'hadras' de Ibn 'Arabi y las 'dignitates' de Lulio.")

Cf. also p. 177, below.


For haba'iyah, cf. the preceding note and al-Farghani, op. cit., I, 55 ff. Haba' means "dust particle" and also "atom." Cf. P. Kraus, Jabir Ibn Hayyan (Memoires de l'Institut d'Egypte, Nos. 44-45)(Cairo, 1942-43), II, 154.


Cf. p. 155, below. 89


Cf. 1:9 [?], above, and p. 138, below.


Or Dahhiq, i.e., Ibrahim b. Yusuf Ibn al-Mar'ah, d. 611 [1214-15].


The vocalization in C, here and in the following lines, is madrak, not mudrik, as one might expect.


Bulaq actually has the words in brackets.


Cf. p. 86, above.


Al-mulillah, though A and C read al-muzillah "gives shade to."


The Sufi terms translated here as "combination" and "differentiation" may be understood literally either as "combining" and "differentiating," or, more likely, as "where something (some one). is combined (united) or differentiated (separated)." For some of the many Sufi interpretations of jam' and farq (tafriqah), cf., for instance, Hujwiri, Kashf al-mahjub, pp. 252 ff.


Consequently, even according to Sufi theory itself, particularized exist­ence is not only possible, but the knowledge of it still more desirable than that of the oneness of existence.

For "ravine" as a Sufi term, cf., for instance, al-Qushayri, Risalah, p. 49, and al-Ghazzali, Ihya', I, 48, 112.


Abdallah b. Muhammad, ca. 401 [1010/11] to 481 [1089]. Cf. GAL, I, 433; suppl., I, 773 f. The Maqdmdt are identical with the work entitled Manazil as-sa'irin. Cf. p. 95, below.


Cf. 2:187 f., above.


Shams-ad-din Muhammad b. 'Afif-ad-din Sulayman b. 'Ali at-Tilimsani, ca. 658 [1260] to 688 [12891. Cf. GAL, I, 258; suppl., I, 458. Or, perhaps, rather his father 'Afif-ad-din himself, 613-690 [1216/17-1291].


Not the famous Ibn Sahl (p. 393, below), but Najm-ad-din Ibn Isra'il, 603-677 [1206-1278]. Cf. GAL, I, 257; Ibn Kathir, Bidayah, XIII, 283 ff.


Lit., "to be a watering place for anybody who comes down to it, . , ."


Cf. Isharat, ed. Forget, p. 207; tr. Goichon, p. 501.


The rest of the paragraph is not found in Bulaq.


Abdal "saints," lit., "representatives." Nugaba', pl of nagib, referring to the 'Alid nobility. Cf. 2:165 and 187, above.


Cf. L. Massignon, Essai sur les origines du lexique technique de la mystique musulmane (Paris, 1922), pp. 108 f.


"Asceticism" is added in C and D.


This paragraph appears first in C and D, in the margin of the former and in the text of the latter.


MSS. C and D do not have the additional "in the inner (world)," which appears in the Paris ed., but is of doubtful correctness.


Cf. 2:186 ff., above.


Qur'an 10.35 (36); 46.30 (29).


The following quotation extends to p. 98. It is not found in Bulaq. C and D add: "Additional note."


I have no further information on him.


The verses are from the end of al-Harawl's Mandzil as-sa'irin (Cairo, 1327/1909), p. 52. Cf. W. Ahlwardt, Die Handschriften-Verzeichnisse der Koniglichen Bibliothek zu Berlin: Verzeichniss der arabischen Handschriften (Berlin, 1891), III, 12, No. 2826. Cf. also Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyah's lengthy commentary on the verses in his Madarij as-salikin (Cairo, 1331-33/1913­15), III, 332 f.; the brief commentary by Mahmud al-Firkawi, ed. S. De Laugier de Beaurecueil (Textes et traductions d'auteurs orientaux, No. 17) (Cairo, 1953), pp. 150 f.; E. Berthels in Islamica, III (1927), 12 f.

For the biography of 'Abdallah al-Anlarl al-Harawi, 396-481 [1006­10891, cf. GAL, I, 433; Suppl., 1, 773 ff., and S. De Laugier de Beaurecueil in Melanges de l'Institut Dominicain d'Etudes Orientales du Caire, II ( 1955), 5 f.


The original text of al-Harawi does not have tathniyah "dualism" but 'ariyah "loan." It is a "loan," and not his property but God's property. God's true oneness, not recognized by the person who speaks about God's attributes, nullifies and cancels this loan. This is the explanation of Ibn Qayyim al­Jawziyah. Tathniyah, which was Ibn az-Zayyat's reading, is a simplification.


Cf. Ibn 'Arab!, Futuhat, IV, 473: "Whoever declares the oneness of God is a deviator (heretic), because of the 'whoever' that requires numerical plurality."


Ahmad b.'1sa, d. ca. 286 [899]. Cf. GAL, Suppl., I, 354. The quotation is not contained in al-Kharriz' Kitab as-sidq, published by A. J. Arberry (Islamic Research Association, No. 6)(Oxford, 1937). As is quite usual in the case of Muslim mystics, their published work would hardly make it seem likely that they made the rather unorthodox statements attributed to them.

A reads: "The Truth is not (ghayr) that which is manifest, and not (ghayr) that which ..."


Sic MSS.


Sic MSS.


Cf. H. S. Nyberg, Kleinere Schriften des Ibn al-'Arabi, p. 139 (p. 47 of the Arabic text); H. Ritter, Das Meer der Seele (Leiden, 1955), p. 602.


Cf. Labid, Diwan, ed. A. Hubert and C. Brockelmann (Leiden, 1891), No. 41, V. 9. Muhammad's approval of the verse is noted by al-Bukhari, Sahih, IV, 228.


A1-muwahhid huwa al-muwahhad, as vocalized in C. The last word is vocalized in the same manner in A, too.


Ahmad al-Ghazzali is credited with a very similar statement: "The Truth is known only through the Truth." Cf. L. Massignon, Recueil de testes inidits concernant 1'histoire de la mystique en pays d'Islam (Collection de textes inedits relatifs a la mystique musulmane, No. I) (Paris, 1929), p. 98. Cf. also El, s.v. "Shatb."


Shaf'iyah goes back to the incomprehensible oath, "by the even and the odd," in Qur'an 89.3 (2); cf. R. Bell's translation (Edinburgh, 1937-39), II, 654. Ibn 'Arabi, Kitdb al-isra', in the Rasa'il Ibn al-'Arabi, p. 58, speaks of the "veil of shaf'." Shaf' is opposed to fard (and wdbid) in Ibn Arabi, Futuhat, IV, 110 f., 355 f.


De Slane reads, with A, sallama "accepts (it)."


It might be possible to translate, "Those who have trouble with their reality . . ." i.e., those whose real being is not safe and sound and fully prepared for oneness, but who have trouble with it. This, however, seems much less likely than the translation above.


That is, of the human being whom God loves.


Cf. al-Bukhari, Sahih, IV, 231, quoted by Ibn 'Arabi, for instance; cf. L. Massignon, Recueil de testes inedits . . . , p. 118. According to Massignon, Essai sur les origines du lexique technique de la mystique musulmane (Paris, 1922), p. 107, this hadith qudsi was adopted by Ibrahim b. Adham.


Mubammad b. 'Abdallah, 713-776 [1313-1374]. Cf. GAL, II, 260 H.; Suppl., II, 372 f., and above, 1:xliv. The work quoted was not available for checking. Cf. GAL, Suppl., II, 973, No. 24.

In a letter to Ibn Khaldun, dated January 24, 1368, Ibn al-Khatib speaks about the work he had just written, hoping to surpass the Diwan as-sababah of Ibn Abi Hajalah at-Tilimsini (cf. GAL, II, 13 f; suppl., II, 5 f.). Cf. Autobiography, pp. 120 f., and also al-Ghazali, Malali' al-budur (Cairo, 1299-1300/1881-82), II, 72 f.


Cf. p. 79, above.


The reference is apparently to pp. 81 f.


Cf. L. Massignon in El, s.v. "Shalb."


Apparently there is no separate discussion of point two.


Cf. 1:188 ff. and 223, above; pp. 167 and 170, below.


Cf. the preceding section, pp. 55 ff.


Cf. p. 79, above.


Cf. pp. 58, 61 and 66, above.


The famous mystic, who died ca. 260 [874]. Cf. GAL, Suppl., l, 353; R. A. Nicholson in EI, Supplement, s.v. "al-Bislami." Cf. also pp. 179 f., below. "Al-Bistimi" is found in C and D.


Al-Husayn b. Manlur, 244-309 [858/59-922]. Cf. GAL, I, 199; Suppl., I, 355. L. Massignon, "Nouvelle bibliographie Hallagienne," in I. Goldziher Memorial Volume (Budapest, 1948), I, 252-79.


Cf. p. 82, above.


An illustration is given below, pp. 179 f. Cf. also 1:222, above, and, for instance, A. Mez, Die Renaissance des islams (Heidelberg, 1922), p. 284.


Cf. Bombaci, p. 456.


Cf. Bombaci, pp. 456 f.