"And especially . . . concepts" added in D, while the whole sentence is a marginal addition in C.


as-Suyuli, Itqan (Cairo, 1317/1899), II, 2ff. (Ch. XLIII), and below, pp. 55 ff.


Cf. 2:461, above.


An-nass 'ala l 'illah occurs again below, p. 27.


As de Slane suspected in his note to this passage, the purpose of the sentence is to show that the Z, ahirites used analogy in a certain sense, but only in cases where the texts of the Qur'an and the Sunnah seem to imply its use.

A translation of the sentence is given by I. Goldziher, Die Zahiriten (Leipzig, 1884), p. 30. If I understand his translation correctly, the main difference between it and the translation above is at the end, where Goldziher says, ". . . because causality [Gesetzesursache] mentioned in the text, wherever it occurs, is but the determination of a concrete law (not the determination of a legal principle)."

Bombaci, p. 454, translates, "They considered `evident' analogy and the ratio legis resulting from a text in the same way as the (explicit) norms of the texts, in that a text indicating the determining motive is in each case equivalent to a text establishing a norm." (Thus, they completely excluded analogy from the sources.)

My italics indicate where I believe Goldziher and Bombaci to have gone wrong, by misunderstanding mahalliha.


For Dawud b. 'Ali, 202-270 [817/18-884], and his son Muhammad, 255-297 [869-910], cf. GAL, 1, 185 f.; Suppl., I, 312 and 249 f.


Cf. p. I 15, below, where the MSS clearly favor mukhalladah, and not mujalladah "bound." Mukhalladah "eternal" is a common epithet of books.


I. Goldziher, Die Zahiriten, pp. 193 f., suggests that Ibn Khaldun was thinking of a contemporary revival of Zahirism in Syria and Egypt. This seems rather improbable.


Cf. 1:414, above.


Yatagayyaddna: B. The reading yattafiquna "they agreed upon," in A, C, and D, seems to be a simplification. In C it appears to be a correction, though the photostat is not clear enough to say so definitely.


Bulaq adds: "and assent by silence . . ." The passage appears in the margin of C, and it seems that wa-tagririhi appears there but has been deleted. Cf. D. Santillana, Istituzioni di diritto musulmano malichita (Rome, [1926]-38), 1, 36 f.


For istijhab, cf. I. Goldziher in Wiener Zeitschrift fur die Kunde des Morgenlandes, I (1887), 228-36; D. Santillana, op. cit., II, 621-23.

The Muslim definition of this legal concept runs as follows: "It is the attempt to associate the present (legal situation) with the past by judging the present in the same way as the past is judged, with the result that (the legal situation) is left as it had been, for the reason that no evidence to change it has been found." Cf. at-Tahanawi, Kashshaf istilahat al funun (Bibliotheca Indica) (Calcutta, 1862), I, 809 f.


Instead of Hadith scholars, D has "independent scholars."


Cf. Bombaci, p. 454.


Bulaq adds: "because his school makes little use of independent judgment and is so greatly predicated upon the support of transmission and traditions."


C and D: "and."


The rest of the paragraph is not found in A and Bulaq.


The rest of the paragraph is not found in B. It appears in the margin of C, and in the text of D.


Cf. pp. 23 fi., below.


Muhammad b. 'Abdallah al-Ishbili, d. 543 [1148]. Cf. GAL, Suppl., I, 732 f., where his work on controversial questions, and his Travels, are mentioned.


Sulaymin b. Khalaf, eleventh century. Cf. GAL, I, 419; Suppl., I, 743 f. In MS. D, the order of the names Ibn al-'Arabi and al-Baji is reversed.


Abdallah b. 'Abd-al-Hakam, d. 214 1830], and his sons 'Abd-ar­Rahmin,d.257 [871], 'Abd-al-Hakam, d. 851/52, and Muhammad, 182-268 [798-882]. The last named was a student of ash-Shaft i who, after ash-Shifi'i's death, switched to Malikism. Cf. GAL, I, 148; Suppl., I, 227 f.; as-Suyuti, Husn al-muhddarah (Cairo, 1299/1881-82), I, 166 f., 169, 254.


One would expect "a number of Egyptians," but the text hardly permits such an interpretation.


Yusuf b. Yahya, d. 231 or 232 [845-47]. Cf. al-Khatib al-Baghdadi, Ta'rikh Baghdad (Cairo, 1349/1931), XIV, 299 ff.


Ismail b. Yahya, d. 264 [878]. Cf. GAL, I, 180; Suppl., I, 305.


The reference to Malikites is out of place here, being induced by the preceding reference to the 'Abd-al-Hakam family, who wavered between Shafi'ism and Malikism.


The beginning of this sentence is not found in Bulaq.


Ashab b. 'Abd-al-'Aziz, 140-204 [757/58-820]. Cf. as-Suyuti, Husn al-muhddarah, I, 166.


Abd-ar-Rahman b. al-Qasim, 132-191 [719-806]. Cf. GAL, I, 176 f.; suppl., I, 299.


Muhammad b. Ibrahim, d. 281 [894]. Cf. GAL, 1,177; Suppl., I, 300.


154-250 [771--864]. Cf. as-Suyuti, op. cit., I, 168. His son Ahmad, 239-311 [853/54-923/24], is mentioned by as-Suyuti, I, 255.


Muhammad b. al-Qasim, d. 355 [966]. Cf. Ibn Farhun, Dibaj (Fez, 1316/1898-99), pp. 231 f.; as-Suyuti, op. cit., I, 172. The reference to Ibn Sha'ban is not found in Bulaq. "Abu Ishaq" is omitted in D.


The text from here to 1. 15 (Egypt) is not found in Bulaq. Cf. pp. 17 f., below.


Abd-al-Wahhab b. 'Ali, 362-422 [973-1031]. Cf. GAL, Suppl., I, 660. Ibn Bassam mentions 'Abd-al-Wahhab's lack of success in Baghdad in the Dhakhirah. Cf. Ibn al-'Imad, Shadharat adh-dhahab (Cairo, 1350-51/ 1931-33), III, 223 f.; Ibn Farhun, Dibaj (Cairo, 1351/1932), p. 159.


Fa-badara, as in B. The wrong reading fa-ta'adhdhana in C and D entered Dozy's Supplement aux dictionnaires arabes, I, 15.


"Extremist" is not found in D.


This sentence follows in B the sentence that is here next.


Abd-al-Karim b. Mubammad, d. 623 [1226]. Cf. GAL, I, 393; Suppl., I, 678. The "book" is the Kitab al-Mubarrar. The 'Iraq is evidently "the non-Arab 'Iraq."


Abd-al-'Aziz b. `Abd-as-Salam, 577-660 [1181/82-1262]. Cf. GAL, I, 430 f.; suppl., I, 766 ff.


Ahmad b. Muhammad, 645-710 [1247/48-1310]. Cf. GAL, II, 133 f.; Suppl., II, 164.


Muhammad b. 'Ali, 625-702 [1228-1302]. Cf. GAL, II, 63; Suppl., II, 66.


Ali b. `Abd-al-Kafi, 683 [1284] to 755 or 756 [1354/55]. Cf. GAL, II, 86 ff.; Suppl., II, 102 ff.


Umar b. Raslan, 724-805 [1324-14031. Cf. GAL, II, 93; Suppl., II, 110.


Isma'il b. Ishaq, 199 or 200 [814-16] to 282 [896]. Cf. GAL, Suppl., I, 273, and above, 1:38. The "men of his class" ("his contemporaries"), however, lived a century after him.


Abu 'Abdallah (Bakr) Mubammad b. Abmad, a pupil of al-Abhari. Cf. I. Goldziher in Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlindischen Gesellschaft, LVIII (1904), 582-85; Ibn Farhun, Dibaj (Cairo ed.), p. 268. According to Goldziher, the correct form of his name would be Ibn Khuwayrmand Ad, and that is precisely what we find in Bulaq. The existence of both forms is ac­knowledged by Ibn Hajar, Lisan al-Mizan (Hyderabad, 1329-31/1911-13), V, 291 f. Cf. also al-Safadi, Wafl, ed. S. Dedering (Istanbul, 1949), II, 52.


Ibn al-Muntab is not identical with either of the two brothers of this name, `Abdallah and 'Uthmin b. 'Amr, who lived in the tenth century. He figures as a pupil of Judge Ismail, teacher of al-Abhari, and contemporary of a man who died in 303 [916/16]. Cf. Ibn Farhun, Dibdj (Cairo ed.), pp. 93, 156, 255.


Muhammad b. 'Abdallah, 289-375 [902-9861. Cf. al-Khatib al­Baghdadi, Ta'rikh Baghdad, V, 462 f.; Ibn al-Jawzi, Muntazam (Hyderabad, 1357-/1938-), VII, 131.


Ali b. Ahmad, d. 898 [1007/1008]. Cf. Ibn Farhun, Dibaj (Cairo ed.), p. 199; GAL, Suppl., I, 660 (No. 15); 11, 963 (No. 49). Cf. also below, p. 32.


Not in D. For 'Abd-al-Wahhab and the following four men, cf. p. 11, above.


Died 234 or 236 [848-851]. Cf. GAL, Suppl., I, 297; Ibn Hajar, Tahdhib (Hyderabad, 1325-27/1907-9), XI, 300 f. The passage concerning Yahya is found only in C (in the margin) and D.


Died 238 or 239 [853/541. Cf. GAL, I, 149 f.; Suppl., I, 231.


Muhammad b. Ahmad, d. 235 [8691. Cf. GAL, I, 177; suppl., I, 900 f. Cf. also below, p. 286.


Born between 142 and 145 [759-63], died in 213 or 214 [828-30]. Cf. Ibn Farhun, Dibaj (Cairo ed.), p. 98.


Abd-as-Salam b. Sa'id, Sahnun or Subnun, 160-240 [776/77-854]. Cf. GAL, Suppl., I, 299 f.


Or Ibn al-Qasim's problems.


Cf. 1:223, above.


Khalaf b. Abul-Qasim (wrote in 372 [982]). Cf. GAL, I, 178; Suppl., I, 302. The reading Baradhi'i, and not Baradi'i, is indicated in B and C in this case, though not in the later occurrence of the name, below, p. 286.


Abu 'Abdallah b. Yunus, ca. 1100. Cf. GAL, Suppl., I, 663; II, 963 (No. 53). D. Santillana, Istituzioni di diritto musulmano malichita, II, 651, has Abu Bakr Muhammad b. 'Abdallah b. Yunus, d. 451 [1059].


Ali b. 'Abdallah, d. 478 [10851. Cf. GAL, I, 383; Suppl., 300, 661. D. Santillana, op. cit., II, 651, has 'All b. Muhammad.


Abul-Qasim, a contemporary of the following Tunisi. Cf. Ibn Farhun, Dibaj (Cairo ed.), pp. 39, 120.


Abu Ishaq Ibrahim b. Hasan, died "at the beginning of the disturbances in al-Qayrawan," i.e., during the Arab attacks against the city in the 1050's-possibly in 447 [1055/56] when al-Mu'izz withdrew, or 449 [1057/581 when the Arabs sacked it. Cf. Ibn Farhun, Dibaj (Cairo ed.), PP. 88 f.


He apparently is identical with Ibrahim b. 'Abd-as-Samad, who lived ca. 1100. Cf. Ibn Farhun, op. cit., p. 87, who does not, however, mention his work on the Mudawwanah. Cf. GAL, Suppl., I, 300; II, 960 (No. 22). For this passage, see also below, p. 288.


Muhammad b. Ahmad, 450-520 [1058-1126], the philosopher's grandfather. Cf. GAL, I, 384; Suppi., I, 300, 662.


The lower text (in italics) is that of Bulaq and A, the upper (between asterisks) that of B, C, and D.


Mutarrif b. 'Ali, 128 [745/46] to ca. 214 [829], son of one of Malik's sisters. Cf. Ibn Hajar, Tahdhib, X, 175 f.


Abd-al-Malik b. 'Abd-al-'Aziz, d. 212 or 214 [827-291. Cf. Ibn Hajar, Tahdhib, VI, 407-409, where 'Abd-al-Malik b. Uabib is mentioned as one of Ibn al-Majishun's students.


Asbagh b. al-Faraj, d. 226 [840]. Cf. Ibn Hajar, Tahdhib, I, 361 f.


Ahmad b. Muhammad, d. 309 [921/221. Cf, as-Suyuti, H, usn al­muhadarah, I, 255. C vocalizes Ibn Muyassir.


B has Ibn al-Labib. No information on him is available to me.


Al-Hasan b. 'Atiq, 547-632 [1152/53-1234/35). Cf. as-Suyuti, op. cit., I, 259.


Cf p. 11, above.


Cf. 1:83, above.


Sanad b. 'Inan, d. 541 [1146/47]. Cf. Ibn Farbun, Dibaj (Cairo ed.), pp. 126 f.; as-Suyuti, op. cit., I, 257. The Tiraz was a commentary on the Mudawwanah in thirty volumes, which he did not live to complete.


Ismail b. Makki, 485-581 (1092-11851. Cf. as-Suyuti, op. cit., I, 257 f.; Ibn al-'Imid, Shadharat, IV, 268. This member of the 'Awf family, however, died too early for Ibn al-Hajib to have been his student.


Cf. 2:429 (n. 49), above.


"'Ubaydid (-Fatimid)" added by C (in the margin) and D.


Cf. p. 12, above.


Abdallah b. 'Abd-ar-Rahman, 589-669 [1199-1270/71]. Cf. GAL, Suppl., I, 900; as-Suyuti, Husn al-muhddarah, I, 260. Ibn Khaldun writes Sharimsahi without the long vowel in the first syllable. There existed a place name Shirmasib in Arabia (cf. Yiqut, Mu jam al-buldan, ed. Wusten­feld [Gottingen, 1866-75], III, 280), but the one to which the nisbah here refers is the large village Sharimsab, so vocalized in the Wustenfeld edition of Yaqut, III, 282. Cf. also Ibn Fartun, Dibaj (Cairo ed.), pp. 142 f.


Abdallah b. Najm, d. 616 [1219]. Cf. GAL, suppl., I, 598; Ibn Kathir, Bidayah (Cairo, 1351-58/1932-40), XIII, 86; as-Suyuti, op. cit., I, 258.


Abd-al-Karim b. 'Ata'llah, d. 612 [end of 1265 or beginning of 1266]. Cf. as-Suyuti, op. cit., I, 260.


Uthman b. 'Umar, d. 646 [12491. Cf GAL, I, 303 ff.; Suppl., I, 581 ff.


Possibly referring back to 2:429? The Mukhtasar is mentioned in the Autobiography, pp. 16 f., 59. Cf. below, pp. 29 f. and 396.


Cf. 2:428 f., above.


Muhammad b. 'Abdallah al-Qafsi, d. 736 [1335/36]. Cf. Ahmad Baba, Nayl (Cairo, 1x29/1911), pp. 295 f., as quoted by D. Santillana, Istituzioni di diritto musulmano malichita, II, 650; GAL, Suppl., II, 963 (No. 5o); II, 1041 (No. 45).


Abdallah b. Muhammad, 609-702 [1207-1303]. Cf. Autobiography, pp. 19, 306.


Qur'an 2.142 (136), etc.


Treated again among the intellectual sciences as a part of arithmetic, pp. 127 ff., below.


De Slane explains the situation as follows: A and B are heirs. A acknowledges a third heir, C; B does not. The estate is distributed between A and B, as if they were the only heirs. Then, the individual shares are figured for A, B, and C as heirs, and C receives his share from A's original share.


His identity is not clear to me. Perhaps, he is Ahmad b. 'Abdallah, who died in 447 [1055/56]?


Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Khalaf, d. 588 [1192]. Cf. GAL, I, 384; Suppl., I, 663. Cf. also H. P. J. Renaud in Hespiris, XXV (1938), 39.


There is a well-known work that would fit the description, the Ja'diyah by Abu Muhammad al-Hasan b. 'All b. Ja'd al-Sigilli, mentioned by Hajji Khalifah. However, Ibn Khaldun would not have quoted an incorrect title, and his al-Ja'di still remains unidentified. He is mentioned again p. 129, below.


He lived in the first half of the eleventh century. Cf. 'Ibar, VII, 43; de Slane (tr.), III, 267.


For these men cf again pp. 128 f., below.


Cf. n. 226 to Ch. in, above.


Cf. D. Santillana, op. cit., II, 497. Cf. also p. 128, below.


Abmad b. 'Abdallah, 336-430 [948-1038]. Cf. GAL, I, 362; Suppl., I, 616 f. His Musnad is preserved in MS, but was not available.


"To determine," rather than "to apportion," is the intended meaning of taqdir, according to Ibn al-Athir, Nihayah (Cairo, 1322/1904), III, 210; Lisan al-'Arab (Bulaq, 1300-1308/1882-90), IX, 67. Qa(' is to be understood in its literal meaning, "to cut, to cut off." Cf. the Arabic and general Semitic root p/f-r-s.