Cf. Issawi, pp. 143 f.


Cf. p. 347, above.


Cf. p. 348, above.


Cf. pp. 497 and 431, above.


All these institutions served mainly as places of study, scholarship, and contemplation.


Cf. also the Autobiography, p. 279: "Since the old days of their masters, the Ayynbid rulers, the members of this Turkish dynasty in Egypt and Syria have been erecting colleges for the teaching of the sciences, and monastic houses for the purpose of enabling the poor (Sufis) to follow the rules for acquiring orthodox Sufi ways of behavior through dhikr exercises and supererogatory prayers. They took over that (custom) from the preceding caliphal dynasties. They set up buildings for (those institutions as mortmain gifts) and endowed (them) with lands that yielded income (sufficient) to provide stipends for students and Sufi ascetics. When there was excess income, they reserved, it to their own descendants, because they feared lest their weak offspring should suffer want. Their example was imitated by men of wealth and high rank under their control. As a result, colleges and monastic houses are numerous in Cairo. They now furnish livings for poor jurists and Sufis. This is one of the good and permanent deeds of this Turkish dynasty."


Qur'an 9.47 (42), etc.