Cf. 3:341, below.


Of the instruments mentioned by Ibn Khaldun, the shabbabah is the only one to occur in a list of musical instruments that appears in a Western work on music written, it seems, at the beginning of the fourteenth century. Cf. H. G. Farmer in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (1935), pp. 339-53. Cf. also GAL, Suppl., III, 1279, and J. Robson in Islamic Culture, XXVI (1952), 113-31. For illustrations of some of the musical instruments mentioned here, cf. also Farmer, The Minstrelsy of "The Arabian Nights" (Bearsden [Scot.], 1945).


Ala sadadihi "straight" is apparently intended to indicate that there is no special mouthpiece, as in the case of the trumpet. Or should we read 'aid sadadatin "through the obstruction of"?


Cf. H. G. Farmer in El, s.v. "Mizmar. Farmer writes zullami, possibly on the basis of the vocalization given in one or another manuscript.


Cf. H. G. Farmer in El, Supplement, s.v. "Buk."


The MSS are not very distinct in their readings, but they seem to have duna. Dawr would be difficult; possibly "turn" or "circle of a hand"?


For the three instruments, cf. H. G. Farmer in El, s.v. 'Ud," "Rabab," and "Mi'zaf."


Bulaq adds here: "This has a secret (meaning) which those attuned to it will understand. It indicates original oneness. If you look at anything outside of yourself and contemplate it, you notice that between yourself and that (other thing), there exists a oneness in origin that attests to the oneness of (yourself and that other thing) in coming into existence."

At the end of the paragraph, Bulaq adds: "Indeed, in this situation the soul desires to quit (the realm of) the imagination for reality, which is one­ness of origin and coming into existence."

These additions advocate a monism that apparently later seemed objec­tionable to Ibn Khaldun. The thought left in the text is obviously much more moderate. The outstanding representative of this kind of monistic mysticism was Ibn 'Arab!, whose teachings were both widely adopted and bitterly opposed in Ibn Khaldun's day. One of the latter's pupils, Shams-ad-din al­Bisati, d. 842 [1439], was a fervent admirer of Ibn 'Arabi, as we know from as-Suyutt's Tanbi'at al-ghabi bi-tabri'at Ibn al-'Arab!. Ibn Khaldun himself refers to Ibn 'Arabi and his school in his chapter on Sufism.


Lit., "racecourse." For the history of the word, cf. J. Robson and H. G. Farmer, Ancient Arabian Musical Instruments as Described by al-Mufaddal ibn Salama (9th Century) (Glasgow, 1938), p. 5.


Lit., "drive."


Music is not treated among the sciences, although it is enumerated among them. Cf. 3:112, below.


Cf. Ibn Abi Zayd, Risalah, ed. and tr. L. Bercher, pp. 300 f.


The lengthening (ishba') of short vowels (or, perhaps, the full-length pronunciation of long vowels, discussed in connection with the reading of the Qur'an). Cf. the following note.


For madd, cf. as-Suyuti, Itqan, I, 98 ff.


That is, what is good for one party is detrimental to the other. The phrase sounds very much like a legal maxim. The Turkish translator para­phrases "the rules of music . . . the rules of Qur'an recitation."


Bulaq adds: "It is in no way necessary. as Malik says." The sentence is also found in C, but is crossed out.


Cf. Concordance, II, 343a; al-Bukhari, Sahih, III, 407. The famous tradition is quoted in connection with the biography of Abu MQsa al-Ash'arl. Cf. adh-Dhahabi, Ta'rikh al-Islam, II, 256 f.; Ibn Hajar, Tahdhib, V, 363. In the Autobiography, p. 45, Ibn Khaldun says that his teacher az-Zawawi possessed a voice belonging among the flutes of David's family.

According to the interpretation of the lexicographers (cf. Lisan al-'Arab, V, 416), we should understand mizmar as the musical instrument (flute), not as corresponding to maxmrir "psalm," and at "family" should be considered superfluous or as having here the otherwise unknown meaning of "person." As pointed out by H. G. Farmer in El, s.v. "Mizmar," it is clear that the statement harks back to the Biblical "a psalm of David," and means: "He psalmodizes like one of David's people." (Not like David himself, for that would be impossible for anyone not a prophet.) However, Ibn Khaldun understood the statement as translated above.


Cf. 3:373 ff., below.


Al-maqati' wa-l-mabadi'. Instead of mabadi', one would expect al­matali' here, since this is the term literary critics link with maqati'. As a technical term, mabadi' usually (though not, of course, exclusively) refers to the opening of a poem, considered as a unit, but this would not apply here. The precise meaning of maqati' and matali' is a matter of dispute among literary critics. The two words are said to refer, respectively, either to the end and the beginning of a verse, or to the end of the first hemistich and the beginning of the second hemistich. Cf. Ibn Rashiq, 'Umdah (Cairo, 1353/ 1934), 1, 188 ff.; and Gaudefroy-Demombynes, in his translation of the in­troduction to Ibn Qutaybah, Shi'r (Paris, 1947), p. 47 (n. 26).


Ibn Rashiq, 'Umdah, I, 17, ascribes this famous definition of poetry to Ibn 'Abbas. Cf. also 3:304, 341, 367, 374, and 410, below.


Although Ibn Khaldun uses the singular "book," probably no specific work on music is meant here.


Cf. R. Dozy in Journal Asiatique, XIV 6 (1869), 163 f.


Cf. n. 1214 to Ch. vi, below. Cf. also Lisan al-'Arab, VI, 307.


Cf. Ibn Rashiq, 'Umdah, II, 296. Sindd is defined there as "the heavy (rhythm) that has repetitions and many trills (naghamdt) and high-pitched notes." The above definition of hazaj is also derived from the 'Umdah. Ibn Khaldun does not mention the third kind mentioned in the 'Umdah, called narb.

The three kinds are also mentioned together by al-Mufatldal b. Salamah; cf. J. Robson and H. G. Farmer, Ancient Arabian Musical Instruments, p. 19. Robson and Farmer translate the definition of sindd as follows: "the heavy (rhythm), having a refrain, the low-pitched voice, and the glottal hiatus." Cf., further, Ibn'Abdrabbih,'Igd(Cairo, 1305/1887), III, 186; H. G. Far­mer, A History of Arabian Music (London, 1929), p. 50.


Ibn Khaldun apparently means al-halum, and not al-hulum "serious minds." The edition of the 'Umdah quoted above has al-halim. Al-Mufaddal reads al-hulqum "the throat finds it easy."


Ghadarah, as in the MSS.


Cf. H. G. Farmer in El, s.v. "Mi'zaf"


Information on all these famous musicians may be found in H. G. Farmer, A History of Arabian Music, pp. 52 ff., 79 ff., 116 ff., 171.


Cf. also GAL, Suppl., I, 228.


Cf. pp. 74 f., above.

This paragraph has been translated and discussed by M. Gaudefroy­Demombynes, "Sur le cheval-jupon et al-Kurraj," in Melanges offerts a William Marfais (Paris, 1950), pp. 156 f. The word translated above as "sticks," is considered by Gaudefroy-Demombynes to mean "instruments d'accompagnement," as it often does.


`Ali b. Nafi'. Cf. H. G. Farmer in El, Supplement, s.v. "Ziryab." It was Isbaq rather than his father Ibrahim al-Mawlili, with whom Ziryab is said to have had difficulties. Ziryab later was invited by al-Hakam to come to Spain, but al-Hakam died in 822, before Ziryab could join him. Al-Hakam's son and successor, 'Abd-ar-Rabmin II, received Ziryab in Spain in the manner described by Ibn Khaldun.


Qur'an 15.86(86); 86.81 (81).