Cf. Issawi, pp. 140 f.


Cf. laxxxiv, above.


Cf. 3:942 and 394 (n. 1598), below.


Bulaq has here some lines that Ibn Khaldun obviously omitted in the later versions because the following section made them superfluous: "The crafts are also divided into those concerned with making a living, whether necessary or unnecessary (crafts); into sciences and crafts concerned with the ability to think, which is a quality peculiar to man; and < into those concerned with > politics. The first group includes the crafts of the weaver, the butcher, the carpenter, the smith, and similar crafts. The second group includes the production of books, which means the manufacture of books by means of copying and binding them, (and, further,) singing, poetry, scientific instruction, and similar things. The third group includes soldiering and similar crafts."