Cf. [H. Peres], Bulletin des etudes arabes (Algiers), VII (1947), 10 f.


Cf. 1:289 f., above.


Cf. Majd-ad-din Ibn al-Athir, Nihayah, III, 180: "The person who has to pay the charity tax (zakah) considers it an illegal impost" (like the many other illegal imposts levied by the government at that time, which he is unwilling to pay. He suspects the ruler of keeping it for his own pur­poses, instead of using it as prescribed by the religious law.) Cf. also the version of the tradition quoted by al-Mas'udi, Muraj adh-dhahab, IV, 169: "My nation will continue to be well off so long as it does not consider faith a gratuitous gain and the charity tax an impost." Cf. also Ibn Durayd, Mujtana (Hyderabad, 1362/1943), p. 33.