Cf. Issawi, pp. 92-95. In this section Ibn Khaldun discusses the problem of how differences in the standard of living in various areas affect individuals.


Cf 1:89, above.


'Amal "labor," especially when used in the plural, as very frequently in the following pages, comes very close to the meaning of "labor products."


Cf. pp. 911 ff., below.


Tastad'i bi-qiyamiha. However, the preposition bi- is not ordinarily used with this verbal form. The vocalization qiyam is indicated in C; other­wise, one might even think of quyyam (like qawamah, which Ibn Khaldun uses, a plural of qa'im): "which require supervisors."

De Slane reads tustad'a bi-qiyamiha and translates: "All these are products that exist only because of the value attached to them," but qiyam does not have this meaning in the context, and the translation in general does not fit into the context.

There remains another possibility, namely, to translate: "which are required with the help of their prices," meaning which are required and for which the prices they deserve must be paid.


Bulaq: "because the inhabitants of those regions are more bountiful than others." Cf also p. 281


The beginning of this sentence (down to "cats") is a marginal addition in C.


 The original "corners" was corrected to "cellars" in C, in view of the preceding addition, just noted. The correction has entered the text of D.


This is a verse ascribed to Bashshar b. Burd. Cf. Ibn Qutaybah, 'Uyun, I, 91. Cf. also Yaqut, Irshad, ed. Margoliouth (E. J. W. Gibb Memorial Series, No. 6) (Leiden & London, 1907-27), 11, 164; (Cairo, 1855­67/1986-88), V, 170, below.


Qur'an 3.97 (92). Cf. Qur'an 29.6 (5).