Cf. al-Bukhari, Sahih, I, 299, 301, 466, 497; Handbook, p. 137b.


Qur'an 2.125 ff. (119 ff.).


Cf. p. 252, below.


Qur'an 52.4 (4).


Qur'an 2.127 (121).


The following four lines, down to "became thirsty," originally read: "leave his son Ishmael and Ishmael's mother Hagar in the desert, and he put them down at the place of the House and left them." The new text is found in the margin of C and the text of D.


Cf. also 'Ibar, 11, 59, 591.


The name of the Tubba' is added in the margin of C, and then in­corporated in the text of D. C evidently has a t in Tiban, but the letter was written indistinctly and has elsewhere been misread as q. Cf. Ibn Hisham, Sirah, p. 15.


Cf. also p. 257, below. Usually, the gazelles are said to come from the Jurhum; cf. Ibn Hisham, Sirah, p. 94. However, al-Mas'udi, Muruj adh­dhahab (Paris, 1861-77), II, 150, considered this impossible and argued for their Persian origin.


Cf. al-A'sha, Diwan, ed. R. Geyer (E. J. W. Gibb Memorial Series, n.s. No. 6) (Vienna & London, 1928), No. 15, v. 44, and p. 88 for the numerous parallel passages collected by Geyer.

Al-Lujj may be the original reading. It is said to have been a pool near the monastery of Hind, the daughter of King an-Nu'man of al-Hirah. The "two garments" are said to have been the objects worshiped there.

However, al-Lujj is not found in the MSS of the Muqaddimah. A, B, and C have nothing. D reads thumma (possibly a misunderstanding of the omis­sion mark, as found in C?). Bulaq has ad-dur, which suggests at-tul, which occurs among the variants.

Instead of "all by himself," Bulaq has "and al-Ma'udid (b. Jurhum)." This is a well-attested variant reading. It may possibly have been inserted by the editor of Bulaq, or Ibn Khaldun himself may have made the change in the reading at some later date.

It should be noted that among the authors who quote the verse, there also appears al-Mawardi, al-Ahkam as-sultaniyah, p. 152 (Ch. xiv).


Bulaq adds: "and the House was bombarded." 252


Cf. al-Bukhari, Sahih, I, 45, 400; III, 197 f.


Cf. also al-Miwardi, al-Ahkam as-sultaniyah, pp. 158 f. (Ch. xiv).


An understructure of marble, ten inches high, projecting about a foot. Cf. A. J. Wensinck in El, s.v. "Ka'ba."


Cf. p. 367, below.


The sacred territory, within which no killing of man or animal was permitted, had to have its boundaries marked in some way. White signposts are said to have been used for the purpose. Al-Mawardi, al-Altkdm as­sulldniyah, p. 157, indicates the limits as they are given here. Only at-Tan­'im was an inhabited locality. The other limits are designated topographically, followed by the name of some former owner or other identifying qualification.


The shi'b "defile" is said by al-Mawardi to have been that of'Abdallah b. Khalid.


Qur'an 6.92 (92); 42.7 (5).


Apparently, this is based upon the statement we find in the Lisa'n al­'Arab, II, 213, that the Ka'bah was the highest part of the House, and that it was called Ka'bah because of its elevation and cubic shape.


Qur'an 3.96 (90).


The famous authority on grammatical, historical, and literary matters, 'Abd-al-Malik b. Qurayb, who died around 831. Cf. GAL, 1, 104 f.; Suppl., I, 163 ff. He was mentioned p. 29, above.


Cf. n. 919 to Ch. III, above.


As al-Mawardi says, op. cit., p. 150, this was Ibrahim (b. Yazid) an­Nakha'i. Cf. p. 172 (n. 885), above.


Cf. n. 38 to Ibn Khaldun's Introduction, above.


Cf. p. 251, above.


Muhammad b. 'Abdallah al-Azragi, d. after 244 [858/59]. Cf. GAL, I, 137; Suppl., I, 209. Cf. his Akhbir Makkah, ed. F. Wustenfeld: Die Chroniken der Stadt Mekka (Leipzig, 1858), I, 170 f.


Cf. p. 161 (n. 818), above.


He died in 59 [678/79]. Cf. Ibn Hajar, Tahdhib, IV, 976 f.


Cf. al-Bukhari, Sahih, I, 403; IV, 420; Abu Dawud, Sunan (Cairo 1310/1892-93, in the margin of az-Zurgani, Sharh al-Muwatta'), II, 167; Ibn Majah, Sunan, II, 140; Handbook, p. 120b.


Al-Tabari, Annales, III, 988 f., anno 200, gives a much less dramatic account of the event.


Qur'an 17.1 (1).


The reference to Jacob, which should be Abraham, was omitted by the editor of Bulaq.


That is, the tent of meeting, the Tabernacle. Cf. also 'Ibar, II, 84. The Arabic word used by Ibn Khaldun, al-qubbah, means "cupola," and also refers more specifically to portable leather tents, used as shrines in pre-Islamic Arabia. Cf. J. Morgenstern in Hebrew Union College Annual, XVII (1942-43), 207 ff., following H. Lammens. It remains to to determined which, if any, Arabic translation of the Bible used al-qubbah for tent of meeting or taber­nacle.


Cf. 1:151 (n. 172), above.


The rest of this paragraph was not yet contained in E and Bulaq. C still has it as a marginal addition, but A, B, and D have it in the text.


The reference apparently is to the survey of Jewish history, 1:474, above. Cf. also 'Ibar, II, 92.


Read by Ibn Khaldun G-b'un.


This legendary "glass pavilion" belongs to the cycle of legends con­nected with the Queen of Sheba. Solomon built it in order to test her. It is mentioned in Qur'an 27.44 (44). Cf. at-Tabari, Annales, I, 583; ath-Tha'labi, Qiyas al-anbiya', in the story of Solomon; Ibn Kathir, Bidayah, II, 23; etc.


De Slane's ingenious suggestion that gahr "back" is an echo of Hebrew debir "Oracle, Sanctuary," a word that was connected with Arabic dubur "back, posterior," although difficult, might, after all, be right. It is interesting to note that the combination of debir with the Arabic meaning mentioned, is suggested again in the most recent Hebrew dictionary; cf. L. Koehler and W. Baumgartner, Lexicon in Veteris Testamenti libros (Leiden, 1953), p. 198b.


He is believed to have had a Jewish mother.


The subject could also be Ezra.


This paragraph is added by C in the margin, and appears in the text of D.


The MSS have "lower."


Professor Saul Lieberman kindly informs me that this discussion refers to Mishnah Parah, III, 6, where it is stated that there was a hollow space under the temple, in order to avoid its contamination by corpses buried underneath. This was combined with another statement (ibid.), in which the construction of a causeway for the Red Heifer is described in a way strikingly similar to the construction of "the Stables of Solomon." For the statement that suspicion has the same implication as fact, one may compare Mishnah Tohoroth, VI, 4. Cf. also The Code of Maimonides, Book Ten, tr. H. Danby (Yale Judaica Series, Vol. VIII) (New Haven, 1954), p. 103.


Cf. 1:478, above.


Cf. also `Ibar, II, 149.


Qamamisah, p1. of qummus, qummus, from Greek hgoumenox.


In fact, "Church of the Excrements" (qumamah) is a distortion of "Church of the Resurrection" (qiyamah).


The location of Bethlehem appears to have been misunderstood by Ibn Khaldun, but he did not change the passage after he had been there himself; cf. Autobiography, p. 350. Probably he had forgotten about the passage. Ap­parently, Ibn Khaldun did not consider Bethlehem a locality, but a house (beth, Arabic bayt).


Qur'an 17.1 (1).


Cf. 1:357, above. Cf. also pp. 362 f., below.


Cf. Handbook, p. 140a, F. Rosenthal, A History of Muslim Historiography, p. 214.


This Qaylah is considered to be the female ancestor of the Aws and the Khazraj, tribes who lived in Medina at the time of Muhammad.


Cf. Handbook, p. 24a.


The MSS have fa-khatabahum, which appears to have been used here in the same meaning as fa-khatabahum (which Bulaq puts into the text).


His death is placed as early as 59 [678/79] and as late as 74 [693]. Cf. lbn Hajar, Tahdhib, III, 229 f. In the Muwatta', Malik praises Medina, and a famous tradition in praise of Medina is occasionally ascribed to Rafi'. Cf. Muwatta' (Tunis, 1280/1863-64), pp. 362 ff., in particular, p. 364; Ibn Hanbal, Musnad, IV, 141. However, the exact source for Ibn Khaldun's quotation remains to be discovered.


The famous Malikite judge is meant here. Cf. 3:11 (n. 200), below. The full title of the work cited was al-Ma'unah li-madhhab 'alim al-Madina ["Support for the School of the Scholar of Medina (Malik) "]. Cf. Ibn Farhun, Dibaj (Cairo, 1351/1932), p. 159.


Cf. his Muruj adh-dhahab, IV, 42 ff. (Ch. lxiii).


Qur'an 2.142 (136), 213 (209), etc.