Ibn Khaldun uses two words for "bridge," which are not consistently differentiated in meaning. One is used for bridges over deep gorges, the other for bridges over wide rivers, by Abu 1-Hasan al-'Amiri, al-I'lam bi­manaqib al-Islam, MS. Istanbul, Ragib, 1463, fol. 4b. Cf. also al-Jawaligi, Sharh Adab al-Katib (Cairo, 1350/1931-32), pp. 71 f.; Qajikhan, Fatawi (Calcutta, 1835), IV, 84.


Cf. al-Bakri's Masalik in de Slane's translation, Description de l'Afrique septentrionale (2d ed.; Algiers, 1913), p. 43, Cf. 1:74 (n. 8), above. Here again, Ibn Khaldun quotes al-Bakri from memory and adds an element, the copper vessel, which is also known from The Arabian Nights. Cf. also W. Hoenerbach, Das nordafrikanische Itinerar des 'Abdari (Abhandlungen fur die Kunde des Morgenlandes, No. 25) (Leipzig, 1940), p. 75.


But cf. above, p. 136. Cf. also p. 376 below.


New Fez was founded in 674 [1276]. Cf. 'Ibar, VII, 195; de Slane (tr.), IV, 84; H. Terrasse, Histoire du Maroc, II, 30 f.


This paragraph is added in the margin of C and then appears in the text of D. The event referred to took place in 789 [1387], under Abu 1-'Abbas. Cf. 'Ibar, V1, 597 f.; de Slane (tr.), III, 113; R. Brunschvig, La Berberie orientate, I, 194.


'Ali' ad-din al-Kindi, 640-716 [1242/43-1316. Cf. GAL, II, 9; Suppl., II, 2; Ibn Hajar, ad-Durar al-kaminah, III, 130 ff, in his Tadhkirah, wrote as follows: "Do not stay in a place where there is no flowing river, no active business, and no just judge, learned physician, or forceful ruler. Have cities built only where there is water and opportunities for pasturage and collecting firewood." (Quoted from as-Suyuti, Kawkab ar-Rawllah, MS. Ar. Princeton 601 = 179 H, fol. 2b.) In this and similar forms, the saying has been popular in Arabic wisdom literature since the ninth century. Cf. Ibn Qutaybah, 'Uyun, I, 6, 215; 'Ali b. Rabban at-Tabarl, Firdaws al-hikmah, ed. M. Z. Siddiqi (Berlin, 1928), p. 576; al-Mubashshir, Mukhtar al-hikam, among the sayings attributed to Hermes (cf. H. Knust, Mittheilungen aus dem Eskurial, p. 105); ar-Righib al-Isfahani, Muhadarat, II, 950.


The reference to the Hijaz was omitted in Bulaq, apparently for the good reason that it does not make much sense.


Cf. p. 269, below.


The principal port for Constantine. Cf. R. Brunschvig, La Berberie orientale, I, 288.