Cf. 1:226 ff., above.


Cf. E. Levi-Provencal, "Le Traite d'Ibn 'Abdun," Journal asiatique, CCXXIV (1934), 217, 241, 263.


Cf. 1:216 f., above.


Cf. 1:219, above.


Cf. 'Ibar, VI, 106; VII, 61; de slane (tr.), I, 205; III, 286. C indicates doubling of the m in Ghumart.


Cf. 1:26, above.


Cf. J. Horovitz in El, s.v.


Cf. 1:229 (n. 894), above.


Cf. his Rawa al-unuf (Cairo, 1992/1914), 11, 96 f. 1004


Cf. at-Tabari, Annales, I, 8.


Qur'an 22.47 (46).


Bulaq: "in the two Sahihs."


Cf. at-Tabari, Annales, I, 9; al-Bukhari, Sahih, II, 972; III, 401; Concordance, I, 22b, 11. 44 f.


Cf. at-Tabari, Annales, I, 10 ff; Concordance, I, 194a, 11. 20 ff.


Cf. at-Tabari, Annales, I, 14 ff; Concordance, I, 82a,11. 25 ff.


At-Tabari, Annales, I, 8, has 6,600. The preceding figure is probably to be read as 6,500 and the following 6,000 as 7,000.


"And Wahb" is not found in Bulaq.


For the huruf al-muqatta'ah, cf. 9:59, below.


Vocalized in the MSS as A-lam yasli' nagsa haggin kuriha.


This figure appears in as-Suhayli and the MSS. It represents the numerical value of the letters according to the western system. The eastern system would give 699. Cf. p. 215, below.


Cf. Ibn Hisham, Sirah, ed. Wustenfeld (Gottingen, 1859-60), pp. 377 f.; and above, p. 191 (n. 966). Ibn Khaldun reads the title of Ibn Ishaq's work as as-Siyar, as also above, 1:401 (n. 245).


The sum of the four combinations of letters is 734 by the eastern system and 704 by the western one. The latter, as the older, was used in the text of the Sirah. A, C, and D have 704, which in C and D is corrected to 743 (for 734?). Bulaq and, it seems, B, have 904.


Qur'an 3.7 (5).


Cf. pp. 245 f., below.


He died in 36 [656/57]. Cf. Ibn Hajar, Tahdhib, II, 219 f.


He died between 252 and 257 [866-71 ]. Cf. al-Khatib al-Baghdadi, Ta'rikh Baghdad, III, 415 ff.


Sa'id b. al-Hakam, 144-224 [761/62-838/39]. Cf. Ibn Hajar, Tahdhib, IV, 17 f.


Born in 115 [733/34], he died in 175 [791/92]. Cf. Ibn Hajar, Tahdhib, V, 356 f.


He was born before 83 [702] and died in 153 [770]. Cf. Ibn Hajar, Tahdhib, I, 208 ff.


Cf. ibid., XII, 307. Ibn Hajar apparently has reference there to this tradition. He thinks that the son's name was Ishaq b. Qabisah; cf. Tahdhib, I, 247. Qabisah died between 86 and 89 [705-8], or in 96 [714/15]. Cf. ibid., VIII, 346 f.


Cf. Abu Dawud, Sunan, IV, 77 f., at the beginning of the Book on Titan.


Cf. p. 160, above.


The tradition appears in the Book on qadar in al-Bukhari, Salah, IV, 459, and in the Book on fitan in Muslim, Sahih, II, 679.


Cf. at-Tirmidhi, Sahih, II, 30.


Cf. p. 194, above, and 9:474, below.


More commonly, his name is said to have been Harun b. Sa'd. He was a companion of Ibrahim b. 'Abdallah b. Hasan. Cf. 1:411 f., and p. 167, above. Cf. GAL, Suppl., I, 914; Ibn Hajar, Tahdhib, XI, 6.


Cf. 1:410, above.


Cf. 1:9 (n. 19), above. The story is also reported by Ibn Hammid, Histoire des rois Obaidides, ed. and tr. M. Vonderheyden (Publications de la Faculte des Lettres d'Alger, Ser. III, Textes relatifs a l'histoire de l'Afrique du Nord, No. 2) (Algiers & Paris, 1927), pp. 22 f.


This is according to the genealogy that Ibn Khaldun attributes to the Fatimids in accordance with his sources. Cf. 'Ibar, IV, 31; de Slane (tr), 11, 506. Cf. Ibn Hammid, op. cit., p. 17. Modern scholars usually prefer a different 'Alid genealogy for the Fatimids, but no certainty is possible in this connection.


In the sense of "they gave him advance information...."


In 333/34 [945). Abu Yazid died in 336 [947].


That is, one of the four groups of three signs into which the zodiac is divided. Each of the three signs are 120° apart and have the same "nature."


i.e., as shown in the following, moving backward through the zodiac.


Cf. 0. Loth in his edition of al-Kindi's Risalah in Morgenlandische Forschungen (Festschrift H. L. Fleischer), pp. 268 f.; C. A. Nallino, Raccolta di scritti editi e inediti (Rome, 1999-48), V, 14.


Bulaq: "in the first minute of Leo."


Cancer being the fourth sign of the zodiac.


Detrimentum: the position of a planet opposite (180° from) its own house; in the case of Saturn, Aries.


Dejectio, casus: the position of a planet when it is of least influence, in opposition to its point of greatest influence or exaltation.


When this otherwise unknown author lived is determined as the eleventh century by the reference to Nizam al-Mulk, d. 485 [1092]. The form of his name is not certain. C consistently has J as the first letter.


The computation of Islam's duration referred to in this passage ap­pears in Hamzah al-Isfahani, Annales, ed. Gottwaldt (St. Petersburg & Leipzig, 1844-48), I, 153-55; (tr.), pp. 123 ff. Hamzah reports a discussion be­tween Shadhan b. Bahr, with the gentilic of al-Kirmani, and Abu Ma'shar.

Abu Sa'id Shadhan b. Bahr is known from a book of "Discussions," Mudhakarat, containing astrological material provided mainly by his teacher, Abu Ma'shar. An Arabic MS of the work is listed in GAL, Suppl., I, 395. Cf., further, Sa'id al-Andalusi, Tabaqat al-umam, tr. R. Blachere (Publications de l'Institut des Hautes Etudes Marocaines, No. 28) (Paris, 1935), p. I11. Sa'id is quoted by al-Qifti, Ta'rikh al-hukama', ed. Muller-Lippert (Leipzig, 1903), p. 242, and by Ibn Abi Usaybi'ah, 'Uyun al-anba', ed. Muller (Konigsberg & Cairo, 1882-84), I, 207, 1. 12. Cf. Rasa'il Ikhwan as-safa' (Cairo, 1347/1928), IV, 325; F. Rosenthal, in JAOS, LXXXIII (1963), 454.

There also exists a Latin translation of the Mudhakardt. Attention was called to it and to the Arabic original by M. Steinschneider in Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft, XXV (1871), 415 f.; idem, Vite di matematici arabi tratte da un'opera inedita di Bernadino Baldi (Rome, 1873), p. 14; C. A. Nallino, al-Battdni sine Albatenii Opus Astronomicum (Pubbi. del R. Osservatorio di Brera in Milano, No. 40) (Milan, 1903), I, xxv f. The Latin translation was recently used by L. Thorndike in Isis, XLV (1954), 22-32, showing the importance of the work. Cf. also Catalogus Codicum Astrologorum Graecorum, V (Brussels, 1904), 142 ff.; XII (Brussels, 1936), 101; F. J. Carmody, Arabic Astronomical and Astrological Sciences in Latin Translation (Berkeley & Los Angeles, 1956), pp. 101 f.


Jafar b. Muhammad, born ca. A.D. 788, d. 272 [886]. Cf. GAL, I, 221; Suppl., I, S94. One would have to see the context of the statement quoted, to discover why he made a "prediction" concerning a time considerably before his birth.


Qismah is explained by de Slane as the crossing of a planet or a star that is a significator into the "field" (see n. 1049) of another planet. 1047


Cf n. 1050, below. It should be "eighteenth."


He paved the way for the 'Abbasids by whom he was killed in 137 [755].


Hadd, Persian mart, is usually translated as "border." It is explained as the "field" of a sign of the zodiac-one of the five unequal parts into which each sign is divided, one for each planet. Cf. al-Khuwarizmi, Mafatih al-'ulum (Cairo, 1349/1930), p. 132. Cf. also n. 1056, below.


Bulaq has 28° 30'. However, the correct figure is 18° 27' (cf. Loth in Morgenlandische Forschungen, p. 294), so that there remain 11° 33' = 693' to the end of Pisces.


Cf. pp. 205 ff., above.


C vocalizes ifrid, in keeping with Arabic vowel schemes.


Bulaq has a simplifying correction: "Venus is the significator of the Arabs, who will then come into power."


This is the Arabicizing vocalization of C. The name might be Elias or, perhaps, Leon.


Al-Qifti, Ta'rikh al-hukama', p. 109, places him in the time of the `Abbasid al-Mahdi. Ibn Khaldun reads his name as Nawfil.


Thus, the field of Mars would extend from 24° to the end of the sign, or six degrees, which would be exactly one fifth of the whole sign. Cf. n. 1049, above.


Bulaq adds: "and the Oxus."


Cf., for instance, F. M. Pareja Casafias, Libro del Ajedrex (Publicaziones de las Escuelas de Estudios Arabes de Madrid y Granada, Serie A, No. 8) (Madrid & Granada, 1955), 1, 10 (text); I, 9 (tr.).

For Dhuban and al-Ma'mun, cf. Maskawayh, Jawidhan Khiradh, pp. 19-22.


Begun in 632.


Cf. p. 21s, above.


Here, apparently, "movement" does not refer to the movement of the conjunction, but to the resulting upheaval from which important (favorable) results for Islam are expected.


Apparently, the Muslim calendar is meant here, though the author had just spoken about the era of Yazdjard.


Bulaq corrects to: "would entail."


Cf. p. 194 (n. 977), above.


Cf. p. 3:114 (n. 587), below.


Cf. at-Tabari, Annales, III, 496 f. Ar-Rabi' b. Ylinus was wazir and al-Hasan doorkeeper.


Cf. 3:474, below.


MSS. A, B, C, and E add "which begins," and, with the exception of A, leave a blank space.


This happened in 476 [1083]. Cf. 'Ibar, VI, 186, 422; de Slane (tr.), II, 77, 155.


The emotion caused by music is meant here, which could be either joy or sadness. What is "entertaining" in the third verse is also to be understood as music.


For the zajal in general, cf. 3:454 ff., below, and for the mal'abah in particular, 3:468.


Apparently, the planet Saturn looks blue to the poet. The remaining words of the first verse, fi sibgh dha 1-azraq lesh fih khiyara, may possibly mean "forebode no good."


Shuklah refers to a color like white-and-red or dirty yellow.




A1-ghazdrah, equated with Spanish algazara by R. Dozy in Journal asiatique, XIV6 (1869), 161.


Ibn Khaldun tells us that he met this man in the Qarawlyin Mosque in Fez in 761 [1359/60]. Cf. Autobiography, p. 371; W. J. Fischel, Ibn Khaldun and Tamerlane, p. 35.


The hadith expert and historian, Muhammad b. 'Abdallah b. al­Abbar, was born in Spain in 595 [1198/99] and killed by al-Mustangir in Tunis in 658 [1260]. Cf. GAL, I, 340 f.; Suppl., I, 580 f.


Cf. pp. 101 f., above. According to de Slane, the poem does not refer to the inglorious end of Ibn al-Lihyant's reign, but to its promising beginning. It was then that he defeated his brother Abul-Baqa' Khalid, who had been slow ("like a mangy camel") to take measures against him.


Abd-allah is used instead of 'Abdallah because of the meter.


This sentence is written in the MSS as if it were part of the last, incomplete verse.


Cf. 3:466, below.


i.e., the tears.


Cf. GAL, Suppl., 1, 800, No. 146b.


Such as, for instance, the snake and the lion found on the talisman called "the Lion Seal." Cf. 3:163 below.


The following paragraph is not found in Bulaq or E, and is still a marginal addition in C, but appears in the text of the other MSS.


In this case, people with esoteric knowledge.


This paragraph is added in the margin of C and appears in the text of D. The dates in this passage refer to early attempts by the Falimids to conquer Egypt.


Cf. I. Goldziher, "Ibn abi-l-'Akb," Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft, LXXV (1921), 57-59, 292. Goldziher also mentions some MSS ascribed to this person. The Istanbul MS. Koprula II, 168, is ascribed to him in the catalogue, but the text does not mention his name.


This paragraph is likewise an addition of C and D.


Cf. Ibn Khallikan, Wafayat al-a'yan, tr. W. M. de Slane (Paris, 1843­71), I, 241; Abul-Faraj al-Isfahani, Kitab al-Aghani (Bulaq, 1285/1868), I, 169; (Cairo, 1345-/1927),11, 9. For Ibn al-Qirriyah, whose name is said to have been Ayyub b. Zayd, ef. also H. M. Leon in Islamic Culture, II (1928), 347-59. For the legendary poet Majnun Layla, cf. GAL, I, 48; Suppl., I, 81.


For al-Bajarbaqi, cf. pp. 229 f., below, where a large part of his poem is repeated from another source, with a good many variants. The place from which al-Bajarbaqi derived his name is vocalized Bajurbaq by Yiqut, Mujam al-buldan, ed. Wustenfeld (Gottingen,1866-73), I, 453. However, the vocalization in C and D shows a for the second syllable.

The poem is incomprehensible to me, but a thorough study of the time of Baybars might make it possible to unravel its mysteries, although Ibn Khaldun himself was rather skeptical.


That is, 'Ali, who, according to the Shi'ah, was appointed Muhammad's successor by the Prophet's last will.


The five letters of Baybars' name? The text below, p. 290, has "goblet" instead of "b."


The nominative is indicated in C and D.


Leg. 'drin, instead of the ghazin of the MSS.


Barqupq is added in C and D.


The source of the following story is Ibn al-Athir, Hamid, VIII, 85 f., anno 919 [951]. As shown by C, it did not belong to the earliest draft of the Muqaddimah. The story is repeated in 'Ibar, III, 376. Cf. also F. Rosenthal, A History of Muslim Historiography, pp. 99 f.


Ibn Khaldun says: wada'ahu . . . 'ald, which might mean "had a falsification made through Muflib," but this would seem forced. The transla­tion follows Ibn al-Athir's text, which suggests: tawa,ctala . . . ma'a. Muflih merely brings ad-Daniyali in touch with Ibn Wahb, and is shown ad-Daniyali's finished product by Ibn Wahb.

The name of the wazir appears as al-Hasan in A, B, C, and D.


Muhammad b. Mahmud, who was born shortly after 710 [1310/11], and who died in 786 [13841. Cf. GAL, 11, 8o f.; suppl., II, 89 f. Ibn Hajar, ad-Durar al-Kaminah, IV, 250, states on the authority of Ibn Khaldun that Akmal-ad-din believed in the mystical doctrine of monism (wabdah).


Bulaq adds: "and cannot be found outside."


Qur'an 7.43 (44).


The following addition, containing the latest date mentioned in the Muqaddimah, is found only in C and D.


Isma'il b. 'Umar, born shortly after 700 [1300/1301), died in 774 [1373]. Cf. GAL, II, 49; Suppl., II, 48 f. The reference is to his Bidayah, XIV, 115. The poem, however, is not quoted there.

For al-Bajarbaqi, who was born ca. 676[1277/78], cf. also adh-Dhahabi, Duwal al-Islam (2d ed.; Hyderabad, 1364-65/1945-46), II, 177; Ibn Hajar, ad-Durar al-kaminah, IV, 12 ff.; al-Kutubi, Fawat al-Wafayat (Cairo, 1951­53), II, 444 f.; Ibn al-'Imad, Shadharat adh-dhahab, VI, 64 f. As-Safadi's article on him has now been published. Cf. al-Safadi, Wafi, ed. S. Dedering (Damascus, 1953), III, 249 f.


Cf. p. 225, above.