Cf. 1:385 ff., above.


Cf. the well-known works by al-Farabi, Der Musterstaat, ed. and tr. F. Dieterici (Leiden, 1895-1900), and by Ibn Bajjah (Avempace), El rigimen del solitario, ed. and tr. M. Asin Palacios (Madrid & Granada, 1946). Cf. also D. M. Dunlop, "Al-Firibi's Aphorisms of the Statesman," in Iraq, XIV (1952), 93-117. In connection with Ibn Khaldun, a recent article by E. I. J. Rosenthal, "The Place of Politics in the Philosophy of Ibn Rushd," Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies, XV (1953), 246-78, is illuminating.


The composition of this document must have fallen into the year 205/6 [821], according to G. Richter, Zur Geschichte der dlteren arabischen Fursten­spiegel (Leipziger Semitistische Studien, N.F. 3) (Leipzig, 1932), pp. 80 ff.

The oldest available text is found in the ninth-century History of Baghdad by Ibn Abi Tahir Tayfur. Cf. H. Keller (ed. and tr.), Sechster Band des Kitab Bagdad (Leipzig, 1908), pp. 36-53 (text); pp. 17-25 (tr.); cf. also idem, Das Kitab Bagdad (Bern diss.) (Leipzig, 1898), pp. 38 ff,. However, Ibn Khaldun certainly was not acquainted with Ibn Abi Tahir's work.

The text is further to be found in at-Tabari, Annales, III, 1046-61, whose source was apparently Ibn Abi Tahir, and in Ibn al-Athir, Kamil, VI, 149-56, anno 206. The latter's source was at-Tabari.

There are more than the usual number of divergencies between the versions of this document given in the earlier and later texts of the Muqaddimah. If this seems strange, since Ibn Khaldun was dealing with a quotation, the explanation is not difficult to find. Originally, he used Ibn al-Athir's text, and revised this later with the help of at-Tabari's. He also added a few conjectures of his own as to the correct text.

The introductory statement that the text was copied from at-Tabari is not found in Bulaq or E. C, which has the earlier version and all later corrections in the margin, shows that the reference to at-Tabari was inserted into the text by a later hand, apparently the same person who added all the other additions and corrections.

Furthermore, Ibn Khaldun breaks off his quotation at the same place as Ibn al-Athir, while at-Tabari goes on for a few more lines. These lines did not seem very important and were for that reason not added when Ibn Khaldun checked his first version against the text of at-Tabari. There are some passages, noted below, where Ibn Khaldun left the original wording as he had first copied it from Ibn al-Athir, not bothering to correct all the minor details in accordance with at-Tabari.

One or two cases of correction by Ibn Khaldun are found in the margin of C, marked z (for zann, "conjecture"). They entered the text of the Muqaddimah through the other MSS. The following notes mention only the more important of these variant readings.


Ibn Khaldun read li-salabihim, which he apparently understood to mean: "to make them safe against being plundered." However, the correct reading li-subulihim had to be used for the translation.


Again, this is the original text. Ibn Khaldun's early reading was wa-tawdqu'uhu. In C and D we find wa-tawaqqu'uhu. Both forms would yield only a rather artificial meaning.


Qur'an 29.45 (44).


Bulaq and E, as well as Ibn al-Athir, add: "for reward." The word, which at-Tabari does not have, is deleted in C and no longer found in A, B, or D.


Instead of "and your rank," at-Tabari and Ibn al-Athir read: "and those close to you." The same words seem to be at the base of the corrupt text in Bulaq and E.


The following thirty-odd words (down to "looking") were originally left out of Ibn Khaldun's text, by homoeoteleutic omission. They were supplied in the margin of C and are found in A, B, and D.


Like at-Tabari and Ibn al-Athir, C and D have al-huda in the text. C, however, notes in the margin that the "manuscript" (kh, for nuskhah) - may we suppose at-Tabari's, used for collation? -had al-'hdy. This is the reading found in the other MSS, as well as in Bulaq.


The words in parenthesis are in at-Tabari and Ibn al-Athir. They are necessary for the context.


The reading wa-qabiluhu is clearly indicated in C. 761 Cf. n. 47


Cf. n. 47 to Ch. II, above.


Cf. Qur'an 8.26 (25).


At-Tabari and Ibn al-Ateir have the original text: "who enjoy , .."


Li-dahma'ihim, as all the witnesses of the text have.


Cf. Issawi, pp. 89 f.


Qablaka (and not qibalaka) seems to be the correct reading. The awliyd' are officials (not "friends" or the like) who are no longer in office when the administration comes in.


The original text is aslas. In the margin of C, the (unnecessary) correction to askan is suggested, and askan is the reading we find in A, B, and D.


Almost the whole textual tradition of the Muqaddimah has a meaning­less haqquka. However, C has in the margin the apparently correct khashyatuka which is adopted by A. It also appears in the text of Ibn Abi Tahir. The edition of at-Tabari reads hisbatuka.


Remain useful, that is, in the other world.


This sentence is not found in the earlier text, or in Ibn al-Athir. It was added from at-Tabari in the margin of C, and is found in the text of A, B, and D.


That is, of others. However, although tarhabanna is the unanimous reading of all texts, one might suggest tentatively the reading tuzhiyanna "do not be proud."


Safahan is the reading in C and in at-Tabari. The other MSS have safhan "a stupid person," and this seems also to have been the original reading in C.


Originally, Ibn Khaldun had diqqah here, which in this context might perhaps mean "pedantic." Ar-rafh is a conjecture proposed in the margin of C and adopted in the texts of B and D.


Ibn Khaldun's original text read with Ibn al-Athir: "Be obliging to your sincere friends ..." C adds the above text from at-Tabari, in the margin. Apparently the marginal correction was overlooked in the text from which D was copied, because D still preserves the earlier text. B, on the other hand, follows the corrected text.


Qur'an 59.9 (9); 64.16 (16). "Avarice" and "stinginess" are represented by the same Arabic word in this paragraph.


Lit., "Make the road of generosity smooth and level." The MSS. A, B, C, and D have al jawr, instead of al-jud, which could hardly mean anything but "Be really unjust."

The phrase is repeated a few lines below. This is explained by the fact that Ibn al-Athir has it later on, whereas at-Tabari has it here. C adds it here, in the margin, but does not delete it at the later occurrence. In E it preserves its old position, but Bulaq, remarkably enough, has it here and omits it later on. The other MSS have it twice.


E still has ihda 1-baliyatayni "of the two temptations (to be either too harsh or too mild)," as in at-Tabari. The corruption to al-babayn, which is easily understandable, appears in the other MSS and also in Bulaq.


C and D apparently indicate the reading al fasl, and not al fadl "excellence, superiority." The word itself is not found in Bulaq or Ibn al-Athir, and seems an addition derived from at-Tabari. The text and apparatus of the Tabari edition is not quite clear in this passage.


This sentence is not found in Bulaq, E, or Ibn al-Athir. It was added in the margin of C from at-Tabari, and taken over by A, B, and D.


an-nataf, as in the MSS.


The same applies to this sentence as to the one above, n. 779. C clearly indicates that it should be inserted in this place. However, it was written so closely together with the earlier addition that the scribe of the archetype from which A and D were ultimately copied, thought that it be­longed with it. Therefore, A and D have this sentence after "procedure," p. 149 (n. 779), above.


Cf. n. 430 to this chapter, above. These are the Muslim subjects who have agreed to the covenant governing the status of Christians, Jews, and members of certain other religions.


Irtibat, as in at-Tabari and in Ibn Khaldun's original text. The word was corrupted to a meaningless irtiyad, for which C, in the margin, suggested the reading irtida' "satisfaction." This reading was accepted in A and B, while D still retained irtiyad.


Uddah, as also in the margin of C.


The word "council" is an addition from at-Tabari, found in A, B, C, and D.


Mazlamah in most MSS, with the exception of C, where the word is corrected in the text to the original mazlamatiht.


Yastaqbilu, as in A and C. B and D have yastaqillu. The text and trans­lation of this sentence seem certain, though the intended contrast is not quite clear at first glance. In later Islam, at least, both persons would be con­sidered ideal types. However, the contrast intended is between the judge or worldly ruler, who dispenses justice in the interest of both this-worldly and eternal well-being, and the pious person who devotes himself exclusively to divine worship. In the writer's opinion the former is the more meritorious person, with more duties to take care of, as described in the following sentences.