Qur'an 12.76 (76).


Cf. the Arabic edition of the Sirr al-asrar in 'Abd-ar-Rahman Badawt, Fontes Graecae doctrinarum politicarum Islamicarum (Cairo, 1964), p. 150, and the English tr. of the work in Roger Bacon, Opera, ed. R. Steele (Oxford, 1920), V, 248. See also 1:81 and 210, above. The passage by Pseudo-Aristotle, and Ibn Khaldun's comment on it, are referred to by al-Qalqashandi, Subh al-a'sha, IV, 9. No name is mentioned there, and the author of the quotation is introduced as a "thorough scholar." Cf. also n. 504 to this chapter, above.


For wijdani, cf. n. 277 to Ch. 1, above.


Cf. pp. 397 ff., below.


The word is spelled with the transcription signs for Berber ; and g (cf. above, 1:67 (nn. 183, 185) and below, 3:129), and fully vocalized in C. It seems to be a genuine Berber word, though I have not succeeded in find­ing any discussion of it in the literature. De Slane's derivation from Arabic zawaqi is unlikely, not so much for phonetic reasons (the Arabic sounds might have been Berberized, as it happens) as in view of the fact that zawaqi means "crowing roosters" in Arabic, and is by no means a commonly used word. Cf. Lisan al-'Arab (Bulaq, 1300-1308/1882-90), XIX, 76.

A Berber word tazouggit "souffiet (coup donne sur la joue avec la main ouverte)" is mentioned by C. de Foucauld, Dictionnaire Touareg-Franfais (Paris, 1951-52), IV, 1937, but it could hardly be connected with the word mentioned by Ibn Khaldun.


Qur'an 15.86 (86); 96.81 (81).


Cf. R. Dozy in Journal asiatique, XIV6 (1869), 160.


In 367 [977].


That is, when Ibn Khaldun was in Fez under Abu 1-Hasan's successor, Abu 'Inan.


C vocalizes chitr. Both, as well as the following kos, are Persian words.


The following reference to the 'i$dbah was added in the margin of C. It is found in the text of D.


Cf. J. Sauvaget in Melanges Asiatiques publies par la Societi Asiatique, (1940-41), p. 40. According to al-Qalgashandi, Subh al-a'sha, IV, 8, the 'isabah (apparently the same as the Arabic word for "turban") was a flag of yellow silk, embroidered in gold.


Ibn Khaldun mentions that Sayf-ad-din Ghazi of Mosul, d. 544 [1149], was the first to have a sanjaq carried over his head. Cf 'Ibar, V, 239, following Ibn al-Athir, Kamil (Cairo, 1302/1885), XI, 62, anno 544.


The original text had chatr. The correction to `isabah is found in C, and then in D.


Ibn Khaldun conflated Qur'an 30.22 (21) with passages like Qur'an 3.190 (187). The Bulaq edition corrects the author and gives the exact text of Qur'an 30.22 (21).


Cf. 1:347 ff., above.

560a Cf. al-'Askari, Awa'il, Paris, MS. Ar. 5986, fol. 123b.


For the celebrated, though still rather enigmatic personality who corresponds to the historical Cyrus, governor of Egypt at the end of the Byzantine domination, cf. A. Grohmann in El, s.v. "al-Mukawkas." The form might be the Coptic article p plus Caucas(ios), the Caucasian.


Cf. Qur'an 24.44 (44).


Cf. also 1:484 above. In Islam the subject of standards of coinage and the history of Muslim coinage belonged to political and legal science and were treated by al-Mawardi at the end of the thirteenth chapter of the Ahkam as-sultaniyah, pp. 146 ff. There, Ibn Khaldun found his material for the older period. The subject also entered general historiography. For instance, Ibn al-Khatib deals with the subject in his History of Granada, in so far as it concerns the period and locality treated by him; cf. al-Ihatah fi akhbdr Gharnatah (Cairo, 1319/1901), I, 37.


The Persian fire altar represented on Sassanian coins used by the early Muslims, was interpreted as a fortress.


Abdallah b. Dhakwan, d. between 130 and 132 [747/48 and 749/50]. Cf. Ibn Hajar, Tahdhib, V, 203 ff. For Ibn al-Musayyab, cf. n. 486 to this chapter, above.


The famous early historian, 'Ali b. Muhammad, ca. 132 [749/50] to 224 or 225 [839 or 839/40]. Cf. GAL, I, 140 f.; suppl., I, 214 f.


Qur'an 112.1-2 (1-2). For the meaning of as-samad, cf. F. Rosenthal in The Joshua Starr Memorial Volume (Jewish Social Studies, Publication No. 5) (New York, 1953), pp. 72 ff.

A coin of the reformed type from the year 77, which, however, has a much longer inscription, is reproduced in S. Lane Poole, Catalogue of Oriental Coins in the British Museum (London, 1875), I, 1 and pl. I, 1


I The date of a coin allegedly from the year 71 is discussed and rejected by J. Walker, A Catalogue of the Arab-Sassanian Coins (London, 1941), p. 117.


This information is not quite accurate, nor is it completely clear.


With the exception of the name baghli, which Muslim sources derive from the name of a legendary Jew, Baghl or Ra's al-Baghl ("Mule Head"), the dirhams are named after the areas where they were in use.


According to 'Ibar, VI, 177; de Slane (tr.), 11, 57, a_ reform of the coinage was undertaken by the last Hammidid, Yahya [1122-52, d. 1163], grandson of al-Mansur [1088/89-1104/5], resident at Bougie from 1090/91. Muhammad b. 'All Ibn Hammad wrote around 617 [1220]. Cf. GAL Suppl., I, 555.


Cf., in particular, A. Bel, "Contributio(1933), 1 ff


Bulaq: "does not engrave."


Qur'an 6.96 (96); 36.38 (38); 41.12 (11).


The text of the additional note is found in C on an inserted sheet.


Cf. p. 56, above.


Hamd (Ahmad) b. Muhammad, 319 [931 ] to 386 or 388 [996 or 998]. Cf. GAL, I, 161, 165; Suppl., I, 267, 275. His Ma'alim is a commentary on the Sunan of Abu Dawud.


Loc. cit., p. 54 (n. 563), above.


All this means simply that according to the opinion here expressed, the currency mentioned in the law was not originally represented by actual coins.


Apparently, 'Abd-al-Haqq b. 'Abd-ar-Rahman al-Ishbili, 510-581 [1116-1185]. Cf. GAL, 1, 371; Suppl., I, 634.


Qur'an 8.7 (7); 10.82 (82); 42.24 (23).


Qur'an 25.2 (2).


The original text in C was much shorter. It has been crossed out, and the full text is found on an inserted sheet that also includes the remarks on the tiraz.


I.e., Muhammad rasul Allah.


The original story had "little," and Bulaq has this in its text.


Cf. al-Bukhari, Sahih, ed. Krehl (Leiden, 1862-1908), IV, 90, 92 f.; Muslim, Sahih (Calcutta, 1265/1849), II, 328 f.; Handbook, p. 212a. The last two or three sentences are, I believe, found neither in al-Bukhari nor in Muslim, but occur in a similar form in, for instance, at-Tabari, Annales, I, 2856.


Qur'an 93.40 (40). Cf. J. Horovitz, Koranische Untersuchungen (Berlin & Leipzig, 1927), pp. 53 f.


Qur'an 83.26 (26), referring to the wine of Paradise.


Cf. I::xli, and p. 26, above.


Cf at-Tabari, Annales, II, 5 f.

590a But cf. the description of the various procedures by which letters may be sealed, below. Any one of them may be meant here.


Op. cit., II, 206. It was 'Amr himself who changed the figures in the draft.


Cf. p. 20, above


Sealing clay constituted part of the tax income of southern Mesopotamia. Cf. 0962, above.


Cf. A. Mez, Die Renaissance des Islams, p. l30.


Numerous specimens of tiraz have been preserved and extensively studied by modern scholars. Cf. A. Grohmann in EI and EI Supplement, s.v. "Tiraz."

Some kind of tiraz manufacture has continued to the present day in the Yemen. Cf. R. B. Serjeant in Ars Islamica, XIII-XIV (1948), 81 f.


Cf. Qur'an 73.20 (20) and 21.89 (89).


Rawb, described by the historians as one of the principal advisers to 'Abd-al-Malik, is said to have died in 84 [709]. Cf adh-Dhahabi, Ta'rikh al-Islam, III, 248. For the story cf. also pp. 76 f., below.


Cf. 1:58 ff., above.


Lit., "tents that cover a circular piece of ground when pitched."


Cf., for instance, E. Ibafez, Diccionario espaiol-rifefio (Madrid, 1944), p. 407a, and idem, Diccionario rjfe-o-espaflol (Madrid, 1949), pp. 13a (aferag), 14a. Cf. also E. Laoust, Mots et choses berberes (Paris, 1929), p. 22, where the word occurs as a "dry hedge of jujubes."


Cf. pp. 78 ff., below.


Qur'an 11.66 (69); 42.19 (18).


Cf. the references given by J. Pedersen in EI, s.v. "Masdjid" (Sec. D, pt. 2, b). The Yemenite attacked Marwan when he was governor of Medina, in 44 [664/65]. The Kharijite attack upon Mu'awiyah presumably refers to the three-pronged conspiracy against 'Ali, 'Amr b. al-'A§, and Mu'awiyah in the year 40 [661], which was successful only against 'Ali. Of course, all this is rather legendary, and the sources do not agree on the date of the introduction of the maglarah.


Cf. n. 6 to this chapter, above.


Cf. Ibn 'Abd-al-Hakam, Futuh Misr, ed. C. C. Torrey (Yale Oriental Series, Researches No. 3) (New Haven, 1922), p. 92, and all the Egyptian historians. Cf. the references given by J. Pedersen in EI, s.v. "Masdjid" (Sec. D, pt. 2, d).


A1-haqqa is Ibn Khaldun's text. Bulaq reads: 'ala l-haqq "toward the truth." D has bi-l-haqq "with the truth." One may compare a tradition such as the one quoted by al-liakim, Mustadrak (Hyderabad, 1324/1906), III, 124 f.: "O God, let the truth go wherever 'Ali goes."


Bulaq has the preceding paragraph in an earlier place, after the intro­ductory sentence of the story by 'Amr b. al-'As. According to C, which has both stories in the margin, they would be a later addition to the text.


For the form of his name, which is further confirmed by the vocaliza­tion of the MSS, cf. 1:272 (n. 64), above. For the event, which belongs in the year 1242, cf. 'Ibar, VI, 287; VII, 79 ff.; de Slane (tr.), II, 817 f.; III, 942 ff.; R. Brunschvig, La Berberie orientale, I, 91.


This is apparently intended as a derisive designation; however, the Prophet's minbar is also called a'wad "pieces of wood."

Instead of "they are," A reads dh-k-r, probably to be translated "he refers to." However, the reading of A seems to be a simple mistake.


We should count al-Mustansir [1249-1277] as the second Hafsid of Tunis. For the numbering of Hafsids by Ibn Khaldun, cf. n. 155 to this chapter and p. 17, above, as well as 101, 116, and 222, below. In 2:116, al­Mustanlir's brother and second successor, Abu Ishaq Ibrahim, is called the fourth. Ya'qub ruled from 1258 to 1277. For the historical circumstances, cf. R. Brunschvig, op. cit., I, 45.


Cf. 1:371, 1. 10, above, and 3:374 (n. 1441), below, as one should read, with Bulaq, shiyat. Shi'ah "will" could hardly be meant here.


Cf 1:81 f., above.


Cf. Qur'an 33.52 (52).