Cf. Issawi, p. 115; G. Surdon and L. Bercher, Recueil de testes de sociologie (Algiers, 1951), pp. 86-96, translating our pp. 3-19 and 35-37.


Cf. also p. 199, below.


Cf 1:463, above.


Cf. 1:464, above.


Lit., "caring for (influencing) the hearts .. ,"


Cf. the similar saying ascribed to Lugman in al-Mubashshir, Mukhtar al-hikam, Spanish tr. H. Knust, Mittheilungen aus dem Eskurial (Bibliothek des Litterarischen Vereins in Stuttgart, No. 141) (Tdbingen,1879), pp. 339 f. Cf. also al-Jahiz, Kitab Kitman as-sirr, in Majma' Rasa'il al-Jazi, ed. P. Kraus and M. T. al-Hajiri (Cairo, 1943), p. 41.


Qur'an 20.28-32 (30-33).


Sakk means both diplomas conferring privileges and checks, i.e., notes entitling the bearer to some kind of payment.


The postal service (band) includes the intelligence service.


Cf. 1:387, above.


The function of the faqih belongs to the religious law, but, in view of the preceding remarks, Ibn Khaldun argues that he is legitimately concerned with the laws and conditions of worldly politics, both theoretically and practically.


Surdon and Bercher: "independently of the caliphate." Ibn Khaldun has in the mind the situation in which the Sultan usurps some power that belongs de iure to the caliphate.


The parenthesis is found in the older texts, but appears in the margin of C and is omitted in D.


Wilayah may mean the appointive power, like tawliyah. Cf. below, p. 16, 1. 4, and p. 19, 1. 9. It may also refer to provincial administration. Here, however, it must be understood in the sense in which it is employed in the chapter headings of al-Mawardi's Ahkam as-sultaniyah, as "taking charge of" various administrative functions.


Cf. S. D. Goitein, "The Origin of the Vizierate and Its True Character," in Islamic Culture, XVI (1942), 380-92.


Ibn Khaldun presumably refers here to his remarks on p. 3, above.


Writing is always praised in Arabic literature as a means of bridging distances in space and time. This explains the rather inappropriate reference to time in this context. Cf. also, pp. 356 and 377, below.


Cf. 1:462 ff., above.


Cf. 1:451, above.


Cf. p. 11, below.


Bulaq: "matters of administration."


It should be kept in mind that actual direction of military operations did not come under the jurisdiction of the dtwdn al jaysh, which was mainly concerned with fiscal matters concerning the army. It might be called "bureau of army rolls." Cf. pp. 20 ff, below.


Sic C and D. The earlier text had "ruler."


Cf., for instance, 1:470 f., above.


The passage from here to the end of the paragraph is not found in the earlier text of the Muqaddimah. It appears in the margin of B and C and in the text of D. The reference to an earlier passage (above, 1:893 f.) is to one of the later additions which were not yet found in the earlier text.

The problem of the possibility of appointing two men to the wizdrat at-tafwid is discussed by al-Mawardi, al-Ahkam as-sultaniyah (Cairo, 1298/ 1881), p. 27.


Cf. 1:379 and 469, above.


Cf. 1:469 f., above.


Cf. esp., 8:346, below.


Bulaq adds: "The name doorkeeper continued to be used in its original meaning."


Cf. p. 14, below.


This seems to be the meaning of the Arabic words which usually signify "was taken away from him ..."


Or dawidar; cf. p. 28, below.


Cf. also pp. III ff., below.


Cf. pp. 8 f., above.


Abul-Agbagh b. Muhammad, d. 320 [A.D. 932]. Cf. also R. Dozy in Journal asiatique, XIV 6 (1869), 158.


Cf. 1:380, above.


He died in 559 [1158). Cf. H. Peres in Hespiris, XVIII (1934), 25 ff.


He was active in the latter part of the twelfth century. Cf. 'Ibar, VI, 237; de Slane (tr.), II, 193.


He was active in the early thirteenth century. Cf. 'Ibar, VI, 250 f.; de Slane (tr.), II, 225, 227 ff.


Cf. i:xxxvii, above, and p. 24, below; R. Brunschvig, La Berberie orientale sous les Hafsides (Publications de I'Institut d'Etudes Orientales d'Alger, Vols. VIII and XI) (Paris, 1940-47), II, 56 ff., 66.


On the office of the 'alamah, cf. i:xli, above.


Cf. R. Dozy in Journal asiatique, XIV6 (1869), 158.


Abu Bakr, A.D. 1918-1946. Cf. n. 155 to this chapter, above.


However, the title was retained for an honorary office. Cf. R. Brunschvig, La Berberie orientale, II, 55.


A Berber word meaning "first." R. Brunschvig, II, 59, vocalizes Mazwar. Berber forms, for instance, are amecwar (cf. E. Ibanez, Diccionario rifeno-espanol [Madrid, 19491, p. 28a) and amzuwar (? according to G. Mercier in Journal asiatique, CCV [1924], 316).


Tanfidh in this sense occurs again, p. 24, 1. 3, below.


Cf. also p. 407, below. For the popular etymologies of the word diwdn mentioned here, cf. the beginning of the eighth chapter of al-Mawardi, al-Ahkam as-sultaniyah, p. 189. They are often cited; cf., for instance, the old Kitab al-Kuttab by 'Abdallah al-Baghdadi, ed. D. Sourdel in Bulletin d'Etudes Orientales (Damascus), XIV (1954), 137.


Cf. pp. 26 f. and 64, below.


The following stories about the introduction of the diwan were also derived from al-Mawardi, loc. cit. Ibn Khaldun conflated the stories concern­ing Abu Hurayrah (cf. I. Goldziher in EI, s.v. "Abu Huraira") and Khalid b. al-Walid (cf. K. V. Zettersteen in El, s.v.) and also the stories concerning al-Hurmuzan and the appointment of 'Aqil, etc. Cf. also F. Rosenthal, .A History of Muslim Historiography (Leiden, 1952), p. 312.


The ruler of al-Ahwaz, who was captured during the conquest of the 'Iraq.


Agil, an older brother of 'Ali, died ca. 680. Cf., for instance, Ibn Hajar, Tahdhib (Hyderabad, 1325-27/1907-9), VII, 254.


He died in 54 [674]. Cf. an-Nawawi, Biographical Dictionary, ed. F. Wustenfeld (Gottingen, 1842-47), pp. 543 f.


He died between 56 and 59 [675/76 and 678/79]. Cf. Ibn liajar, Tahdhib, II, 63 f. The correct vocalization Mut'im is indicated in MSS. B, C, and D.


Cf. n. 88 to Ibn Khaldun's Introduction, above.


He died around 100 [718/191. Cf. F. Rosenthal, op. cit., p. 244 (n. 1).


The following two paragraphs are derived from al-Mawardi, al­Ahkam as-sultaniyah, pp. 192 f. Cf. also F. Rosenthal, op. cit., p. 840 (n. 2).


The name was read in this form by Ibn Khaldun. It is thought originally to have been Sarjun, from Greek Sergios.


In 85 [704]. Cf. C. Brockelmann, History of the Islamic Peoples (New York, 1947), pp. 88 f.


The great secretary, author of the famous Epistle quoted below, pp. 29 ff.


Cf. I: xxxvii, and p. 16, above.


Cf. I: xxxvi, above.


The family of the famous historian. Cf. n. 80 to Ch. i, above, and 8:445, below. Cf. also 'Ibar, VI, 294f.; de Slane (tr.), II, 369 ff.


Cf. also p. 16, above.


Or Ustadar.


D, and possibly C, add: "which is <not?> under his supervision."


Sic C and D. The older text (and C before correction) had: "This clarifies the function ..."


Cf. p. ii, above, and 9:34.6, below.


Cf. 1: xli, and p. 16, above.


Le., the secretary rather than the hajib.


A. Mez, Die Renaissance des Isldms (Heidelberg, 1922), p. 71, quotes this statement.


Cf. p. 14, above.


Bulaq adds: "and the concealing of secrets."


Abd-al-Hamid b. Yahyi perished in the debacle of his Umayyad masters in 132 [750]. Cf. GAL, Suppl., I, l05. His Epistle is found in al­Jahshiyiri, Wuzara', ed. H. von Mzik (Bibliothek arabischer Historiker and Geographen, No. 1) (Leipzig, 1926), fols. 35b-39b, and in Ibn I;Iamdun, Tadhkirah, MS. Topkapusaray, Ahmet III, 2948, Vol. 1, fols, 123a-125b. In both cases the text differs slightly in some passages from what we find in Ibn Khaldun. The text in al-Qalqashandi, Subh al-a'sha (Cairo, 1331-38/1913­19), 1, 85-89, is identical with that in Ibn Khaldun. Ibn Khaldun and al­Qalqashandi may have used a common source, but it seems rather that al­Qalgashandi copied his text from the Muqaddimah, as he also quotes Ibn Khaldun on another occasion without mentioning his name (cf. n. 546 to this chapter, below). This text was also published, with some unexplained rear­rangement, by M. Kurd 'Ali, Rasa'il al-bulagha' (2d ed.; Cairo, 1331/1913), pp. 172-75. A separate edition of the Epistle (Tunis, 1318), is known to me only from the GAL reference, loc. cit.


The MSS have riwayah, which is meaningless in the context. Bulaq, therefore, appears to have corrected riwdyah to razanah "good judgment." The original text, as in al-Jahshiyari, was rawiyah "reflection, (good) judgment."


The edition of al-Qalqashandi here, and three lines below, vocalizes al-kuttdb "secretaries," instead of al-kitab. Though seemingly possible, the reading al-kuttab is certainly not correct here.


This is how Ibn Khaldun read and understood the word used here. The vocalization al-qurra' is expressly indicated in C. He might have had in mind the fact that, since everybody knows the Qur'an, mistakes made by Qur'an readers are easily spotted and blame assigned. However, the correct text is certainly that of al-Jahshiyiri and Ibn llamdun, who have al-mar'ah "a woman." The feminine singular also agrees better with the following laha "to her."


Instead of sijillat, al-Jahshiyari has what is certainly the more original text: istihlab (sic, not istijlab) "in milking his land tax."


D has jamuhan "ungovernable," instead of ramuhan. Though this seems to be a freehand correction or mistake of D, it may be noted that the text of al-Jahshiyari and Ibn Hamdun reads: "If it is inclined to gallop (ramuhan), he takes precautions with the hind legs. If it is ungovernable (jamuhan), he does not goad it when he is riding it. If it is inclined to kick [?], he takes precautions with the forelegs. If he fears that it will bite, he takes precautions with its head...."


As becomes clear from this point on, the secretary's "associates," referred to in this paragraph, are his masters. He must know how to handle them, as a rider handles his horse.


Cf. Qur'an 93.11 (11): "And as to the favors of your Lord, speak (of them)!"


The correctness of this translation is borne out by the variant readings found in connection with this proverb. Instead of Ibn Khaldun's talzamuhu an-nasihah, al-Jahshiyari (cf. also the text of al-Qalqashandi) reads: yalzamu as-sihhah "he who (speaks or acts) soundly is successful." Similarly, ar­Raghib al-Isfahani, Muhdaardt (Cairo, 1287/1870), I, 181, who, however, understands the proverb to refer to sincerity and the avoidance of deceit. Al­Mubashshir, finally, ascribes the following version of the proverb to Aristotle (No. 59 of the sayings of Aristotle in the Mukhtar al-hikam, ed. Badawi [Madrid, 1958], p. 195): Ilzam as-sihhah yalzamka an-nasr "If you (speak or act) soundly, you will be successful," where an-nasr takes the place of al-'amal in the other versions and clarifies the meaning of al-'amal. Cf. also al-Jahiz, Baydn (Cairo 1332/1914), II, 46.


Cf. 1:456 f., above.


Cf. R. Dozy in Journal asiatique, XIV 6 (1869), 159 f., who argues that maqa'id here means "separate houses." But cf. also the phrase which always reoccurs in connection with certain traditions: fa-l yatabawwa' maq'adahtu (fi n-nar).


Apparently, in the East and the West.


Cf. Qur'an 24.44 (44).


Catalan almirant, Castilian almirante, which, in turn, is a loan word from the Arabic. R. Brunschvig, La Berberie orientale, II, 94 (n. 3), doubts the general usage of the term in northwestern Africa. It may, however, have been common in the spoken language rather than in literature.


Cf. 1:139, above.


Situated a day's journey west of al-Qayrawan. Cf. R. Brunschvig, 1, 304.


Near Tunis


Cf. at-Tabari, Annales ed. M. J. de Goeje et al. (Leiden, 1879-1901), I, 2821, anno 28 [648/49]. Cf. also G. F. Hourani, Arab Seafaring (Princeton Oriental Studies, No. is) (Princeton, 1951), pp. 54 f.


Cf. 1:55 and 268, above. Ibn Khaldun probably refers to the events reported by at-Tabari, Annales, I, 2546-48. There, however, `Arfajah by no means plays the role ascribed to him here.


The text in parenthesis is found in Bulaq.


He is said to have died in 80 [699/700]. Adh-Dhahabi, Ta'rikh al­Islam (Cairo, 1367-/1947-), III, 244 f., on the other hand, also re­ports that it was 'Abd-al-Malik's successor, al-Walid, who ordered the shipbuilding program stepped up, and that Hassan was still alive at that time.


Dar as-sina'ah, from which "arsenal" is derived.


For Asad, who was born in 142 [759/60] and died in 213 [818], the year after the conquest of Sicily had been initiated, cf. M. Amari and C. A. Nallino, Storia dei Musulmani di Sicilia (Catania, 1933-39), I, 382 ff.


The Arabic form Qawsarah represents the ancient name of the island, Cossyra.


He died in 52 [672]. Cf. Ibn Hajar, Tahdhib, X, 203 f.; Amari and Nallino, op. cit., I, 195 ff.


Al-Qa'im, the second Fatimid, who ruled from 934 to 946. The raids involving Genoa took place in 934/35.


E. Levi-Provencal in EI, s.v. "Mudjahid," has 406.


The Kalbite governors of Sicily in the latter part of the tenth and the beginning of the eleventh century. Cf. Amari and Nallino, op. cit., II, 886 ff.


Lit., "islands of ar-Rumaniyah." The latter term seems to represent Romania, the Byzantine Empire.


Cf. also 'Ibar, VII, 39 ff.; de Slane (tr.), III, 258 ff.


Cf. Amari and Nallino, op. cit., III, 884.


They were supposed to be branches of the Kutamah Berbers.


He ruled from 1163 to 1184.


Ibn Khaldun again refers to this famous event in the Autobiography, pp. 335 f., and in 'Ibar, VI, 246; de Slane (tr.), II, 216. In 'Ibar, the name of the ambassador is Abul-Harith 'Abd-ar-Rahman, and this is the correct name, as shown by other sources. Abu 1-Harith 'Abd-ar-Rahman b. Muhammad b. Munqidh lived from 523 to 600 [1129-1203/4]. Cf. also M. Canard, Histoire de la Dynastie des H'amdanides de Jazira et de Syrie (Algiers, 1961), I, 24.

According to 'Ibar, the event took place in 585 [1189/90], but a date later in 1190 (and even as late as January, 1192) is considered probable. Cf. Gaudefroy-Demombynes, in Milanges R. Basset (Paris, 1925), Il, 203, and Sa'd Zaghlul'Abd-al-Hamid, in Bulletin of the Faculty of Arts of Alexandria University, VI-VII (1952-53), 84-100. Sir Hamilton Gibb kindly called my attention to the article by Gaudefroy-Demombynes and informed me that the embassy is not mentioned in the extant portion of the Barq, the great historical work by the 'lmad al-Isfahani. For the naval situation in Saladin's time in general, cf. A. S. Ehrenkreutz, in Journal of the American Oriental Society, LXXV (1955), 100-116.


Abd-ar-Rahim b. 'Ali, 629-596 [1135-1200]. Cf. GAL, I, 316 (n. 1); Suppl., I, 549 (n. 1).


The great historian, Muhammad b. Muhammad, 619-597 [1125­1201]. Cf. GAL, I, 314 T.; Suppl., I, 548 f. Bulaq has al-Qussi. The complete title is al-Fath al-Qussi fi 1 fath al-Qudsi, and the work is quoted as al-Fath al-Qussi or al-Fath al-Qudsi. The letter is not mentioned in the edition by C. de Landberg (Leiden, 1888). Gaudefroy-Demombynes, op. cit., refers to a similar letter in al-Qalgashandi, Subh al-a'sha, VI, 526-30. In this letter, al-Mansur is addressed as Commander of the Faithful. See following note


The plural suffix can hardly be understood differently, but, as stated in the Autobiography, pp. 335 f., the failure to address al-Mansur as Commander of the Faithful was that of the Qadl al-Fadil, the writer of the letter, who had acted deliberately. However, cf. the reference to the letter quoted by al-Qalqashandi, in the preceding note.


Abul-Hasan ruled from 1331 to 1351.


Qur'an 3.68 (61).