Cf. Issawi, pp. 136 f.


Cf. pp. 92 and 380 f., above.


That is, toward religion (caliphate) and politics (royal authority).


Cf. pp. 284 ff., above.


Ibar, II, 88, has "three hundred."


Bulaq: "since Moses left no offspring." Cf. also p. 412, above.


Cf. p. 334, above.


The subject of the active verb is Saul, though Ibn Khaldun was aware that Saul did not kill Goliath personally, but "had him killed." Cf. 'Ibar, II, 95.


As indicated in this and the following two notes, Ibn Khaldun originally had some rather incorrect geographical information in his earlier text, which he corrected later. In C the corrections are applied in the text or in the margin. In D they appear incorporated in the text. Originally the text here had "the Jazirah and Mosul."The Arabic form of Samaria, Sebaste, is vocalized Subustiyah in C.


The earlier text added: "and Syria."


"In Samaria" is an addition of C and D.


For this legend concerning the origin of the Jewish settlement in I1fahin, cf. W. J. Fischel in The Joshua Starr Memorial Volume, pp. 112 f.


Bulaq has "the blind and the lepers," which looks very much like a correction by the editor of Bulaq, because Qur'an 3.49 (43) and 5.110 (110) mentions the blind and the lepers, whereas no mention is made in it of the insane.


This refers to the docetist idea of Jesus' death, as expressed in Qur'an 4.157 (156).


For the following discussion of the Jewish and Christian Scriptures, cf. 'Ibar, II, 148.


Originally, Ibn Khaldun had said "all." He corrected "all" to "most" in C, and "most" is found in the text of D.


The MSS have Yahudha "Judah," but there can be no doubt that the Book of Judith is meant.


The MSS do not agree about the name of Chronicles. It seems that the original text in C was b-r-y-w-m y-n, while A has -r-y-'-m-w-my-n. This is easily explained as a corruption of b-r-< 1y>-b-w-m y-n Paraleipo­mena.


The reference to the alleged authorship of the Books of the Maccabees by Joseph b. Gorion (Pseudo-Josippon), is not found in 'Ibar, II, 148, and, incidentally, appears in C only in the margin. It should be noted that the Arabic text of the History of the Jews by Pseudo-Josippon is occasionally called "Book of the Maccabees." Cf. the edition of the Ethiopic version by Murad Kamil, Zind Ayhud (New York, 1937), pp. xvi ff., and J. Wellhausen, "Der arabische Josippus" in Abhandlungen der Kgl. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Gottingen, philol.-his. KI., N.F., 14 (1897), S. Cf. now W. J. Fischel, "Ibn Khaldun and Josippon," in Homenaje a Millbs-Vallicrosa (Barcelona, 1954), I, 596.


The MSS read Ushir. This may represent a misreading Osther for Esther.


Cf. also 2:261, below.


Bulaq adds: "together with other patriarchs and bishops." This may have been the old text, and Ibn Khaldun later took the words out, because he remembered that patriarchs and bishops did not yet exist at that time.


Wahidun, as in the MSS.


Al-Makin, ca. 1205-1273. Cf. GAL, I, 348; Suppl., I, 590. G. Graf, Geschichte der christlichen arabischen Literatur (Studi e Testi No. 139) (Citta del Vatican, 1947), II, 848 N. Although the second part of al-Makin's History (which contains the Muslim period) has been known since the seventeenth century, the first part of the work, where the above quotation may be expected to occur, has not yet been published.


Lit., "those who have entered the covenant ('ahd)." This word is used as a technical term for Christians (and Jews) who have accepted the restrictions placed upon them by the so-called "covenant of 'Umar."


The reference is to the d/t. The Arabic text here is not quite clear. Perhaps we should translate: "with the (foreign) letter (pronounced somehow) in the middle between dh and x." Cf. also as-Silafi, Mujam, MS (photograph), Cairo, ta'rikh 3932, p. 379, who refers to the name Zunuh, also spelled Zunuh or Dhunuh, and explains it as meaning "master in "Roman."


Qur'an 16.93 (95); 35.8 (9); 74.31 (34).