Actually, Ibn Jabsh-who died at Uhud in 625-is said to have himself been addressed as "Commander of the Faithful" during a raid he made in the year preceding his death. Cf. Ibn Sa'd, Tabaqdt, III, 63, II. 15 f. The stories about the introduction of the title vary greatly. It is even said that Muhammad addressed 'Umar as "Commander of the Faithful." Cf. Ibn Kathir, Bidayah, VII, 137.


Possibly barid. I do not know of any Burayd in this context. However, according to al-'Askari, Awd'il, Paris, MS. Ar. 5986, fols. 75b-76a, one of two messengers involved in this story was Labid b. Rabi'ah (apparently, the famous poet). Ibn Khaldun's source may have had Labid or some other proper name in this place.


Asl, as in A, C, and D. Bulaq and B have ahl "people."


"The caliphate . . . power over" appears in the margin of C and in the text of D.


There were, however, other Umayyads called 'Abd-ar-Rabman after an-Na,ir.


These surnames may be translated as follows: Honor of the Dynasty, Strong Arm of the Dynasty, Pillar of the Dynasty, Champion of the Dynasty, Defender of the Dynasty, Order of the Kingdom, Splendor of the Kingdom, Treasure of the Kingdom, etc.


Cf. p. 379, above, and 2:11, below.


That is, Welfare of the Religion, Lion of the Religion, and Light of the Religion.


Cf. p. 316, above.


Sayf-ad-dawlah is added in C and D.


For Abu Bakr, cf. n. 353 to this chapter, above. He and his father, 'Abdallah b. Mubammad, left on the pilgrimage in 485 [10921, and visited Baghdad twice, once before the pilgrimage and once afterwards; they performed the pilgrimage in 489 [1096]. It must have been in 1097/98, during their second stay in Baghdad, that Ibn Tashfin commissioned them to act as his ambassadors to al-Mustazhir (1094-1118). 'Abdallah died on their return trip in 493 [1099]. Cf. Ibn Farbun, Dibaj, pp. 281 f. For the embassy, cf. also 'Ibar, VI, 188; de Slane (tr.), II, 82.


And not the caliphal title "Commander of the Faithful," which the Almoravids did not use.


The word "anthropomorphism" is expressly added in Bulaq.


For ma'sum, 'ismah, cf. pp. 185 and 403, above.


In Ifriqiyah" is added in the margin of C and is in the text of D.


Qur'an 12.21 (21).