Ibn Khaldun speaks here of prophets in general (whether one reads li-nabi as in Bulaq or li-n-nabi as in the MSS), although it is Muhammad who is primarily meant.


Lit., "He is ma'sum, has 'ismah, against . . .; cf. p. 185, above.


Ibn Khaldun found all this material in the relevant chapter of the heresiographers he mentions below, p. 414. Cf., for instance, ash-Shahrastani, Kitab al-milal wa-n-nihal, ed. Cureton (London, 1842-46) p. 122 f.; tr. T. Haarbrilcker (Halle, 1850-51), 1, 184 ff.


For the famous hadith of Ghadir Khumm, cf. I. Goldziher, Muhammedanische Studien (Halle, 1888-90), II, 116.


Qur'an 4.59 (62).


Cf. p. 396, above. The decisive role Ali in this matter is, of course, a Shi'ah view. Cf., for instance, al-Ya'qubi, Ta'rikh, ed. Houtsma (Leiden, 1883), II, 138, where 'Ali himself stopped the movement in his favor, or the Risalat as-Saqifah of Abu Hayyan at-Tawhidi, ed. l. al-Kaylani, Trois Epitres (Damascus, 1951).


Surah 9. Cf. Ibn Hisham, Sirah, p. 921.


Just before the Prophet's death, Usamah prepared an expedition to Syria, for which many of the old guard of Islam, including Abu Bakr and 'Umar, volunteered, but it did not come off. Cf. Ibn Hisham, Sirah, p. 999, and, with more detail, Ibn Sayyid-an-nas,'Uydn al-athar, II, 281 ff.


The occasion was the raid of Dhit as-salisil, in 629. Cf. Ibn Hisham, Sirah, p. 984; at-Tabari, Annales, I, 1604.


The Isma'liyah, on the other hand, were of the opinion that an in­ferior person could not be imam. Cf. W. Ivanow, A Creed of the Fatimids (Bombay, 1936), p. 41. Cf. also below, p. 432.


On the Shi'ah sects, cf. also, briefly, 'Ibar, III, 360 f.


Cf. C. van Arendonk in El, s.v. "Kaisiniya."


The word "problem, proposition" (gadiyah) is simplified in Bulaq to "story" (gissah). For the legend of al-Khidr, who gained eternal life, cf. A. J. Wensinck in EI, s.v. "al-Khadir." In connection with this passage, cf. also I. Goldziher, Abhandlungen zur arabischen Philologie (Leiden, 1899), II, LXIV.


These opinions are ascribed to an alleged sect called as-Saba'iyah, after a certain 'Abdallah b. Saba'. Cf., for instance, ash-Shahrastani, Kitab al-milal wa-n-nihal, pp. 132 f.; tr. Haarbrucker, I, 200. Cf. also below, 2:175.


Cf GAL, I, 48; Suppl., I, 79; and 3:383 and 404, below. The verses are found in his Diwan, ed. H. Peres (Algiers & Paris, 1930), II, 185 ff. They are quoted not only in the heresiographers but also by many other authors with whose works Ibn Khaldun was familiar, such as al-Mas'udi, Muruj adh-dhahab, V, 182; Abu t-Faraj al-Isfahini, Kitab al-Aghani, VIII, 32 (Bulaq ed.); (Cairo, 1345/1927), IX, 14f.; Ibn 'Abdrabbih, 'Iqd, 1, 203; II, 234. Cf. the references in the Mukhtavar of al-Baghdadi's Kitab al farq bayn al-firaq, ed. P. K. Hitti (Cairo, 1924), p. 38.

The "grandsons" of the Prophet are al-Hasan, al-Husayn, and Muhammad b. al-Hanafiyah, according to the generally accepted interpretation. However, the last-mentioned was not a grandson of Mubammad's. It is possible that the verses actually did not refer to Ibn al-Hanafiyah but to the alleged third son of Mubammad's daughter Fatimah, al-Muhsin, who died very young, and that they were later transferred to the historical personality of Ibn al-Hanafiyah.


Cf. pp. 412 ff, below.


Cf. 2:159 ff., below.


Cf. R. Dozy in Journal asiatique, XIV 6 (1869), 156 f.


Cf. surah 18 and Qur'an 2.259 (261) and 2.67 ff. (63 ff).


Isma'il b. Mubammad, d. 178 or 179 [794/95 or 795/961. Cf. GAL, I, 83; Suppl.,1, 133.


Cf. p. 133, above, and p. 420, below. Ibn al-Athir, Kamil, V, 25, anno 100, adds that this region belongs to the Belga' in Syria.


Cf. also 'Ibar, III, 100 ff.


Cf. n. 220 to this chapter, above.


This happened in 122 [7401. Cf. also 'Ibar, III, 98 ff. Al-Kunasah is a part of al-Kufah.


Cf. also 2:210, below, and 'Ibar, III, 104 f.


Ibrahim was killed at Bakhamra in 145 [763]. Cf. Abu 1-Faraj al­Isfahani, Maqatil al-Talibiyin (Cairo, 1368/1949), pp. 315-80.


Cf. 2:203 and 209 f., below.


Another "b. 'Ali" appears in A and B (apparently specifically marked in B as correct) and in C. In D it is deleted. The event mentioned happened in 219 1894]. Cf. Abul-Faraj al-Isfahani, Maqatil ai-Talibiyin, pp. 577 ff. Cf. also 'Ibar, III, 257.


Cf. 'Ibar, III, so l f.


Cf. 'Ibar, IV, 12 ff. Cf. also above, pp. 47 ff.


Cf. 'Ibar, III, 285, 366 f. Al-Utrush died in 304 [917].


Cf. p. 408, above.


Moses' vocation was continued by the descendants of Aaron, although Aaron died before Moses. Cf. also pp. 473 f., below.


Cf. p. 45, above.


That is, the non-Arab 'Iraq, or western Persia.


Muhammad b. 'Abd-al-Karim, d. 548 11153]. Cf. GAL, I, 428 f.; Suppl., I, 762 f. Cf. his Kitab al-milal wa-n-nihal, pp. 150 ff.; (tr.) I, 225 ft.


Cf. pp. 434 f., below.


Cf. p. 408, above.


Ali b. Mutiammad, 384-456 (993-10641. Cf. GAL, 1, 399 f.; Suppl., I, 692 ff.


Qur'an 16.93 (95); 35.8 (9); 74.31 (34).