Ibn Khaldun's legal view regarding the history of the institution of the caliphate is expressed in connection with the case of an 'Abbasid who claimed the caliphate before Timur in 1401. Cf. Autobiography, pp. 374 ff.; W. J. Fischel, Ibn Khaldun and Tamerlane, pp. 40 f.


The following paragraph is found in the margin of C and in the text of D. It embodies a strange and noteworthy concession to actual circumstances in the matter of Muslim political theory.


Qur'an 2.30 (28); 6.165 (165); 35.39 (37).


Cf. Issawi, pp. 102 f.; and pp. 92 f., above.


Cf. n. 9 to Ch. 1, above.


Al-Agamm is a rather conspicuous figure among the early Mu`tazilah who lived ca. 800. His opinion on the caliphate is also referred to by al­Mawardi, al-Ahkam as-sultaniyah, at the beginning of the work where the rational necessity of the caliphate is discussed. Cf. pp. 9 f. of the edition, Cairo, 1298/1881. For the Kharijite views, cf. T. W. Arnold in EI, s.v. "Khalifa."


Cf. n. 189 to this chapter, above.


Cf. p. 415, below.


Cf. pp. 417 and 422.


A "community duty" (fard al-kifayah) is fulfilled when some members of the Muslim community comply with it, in contrast to "individual duties" (fard al-'ayn), such as the daily prayers, which every responsible (mukallaf) Muslim must carry out.


Cf. Bombaci, pp. 447 f. The "competent" Muslims are those having authority and "executive power," as the Arabic term used here is usually rendered in this translation.


Qur'an 4.59 (62).


The text from here to p. 394,1. 26, did not exist in the earlier stages of the Muqaddimah. It appears on an inserted sheet in B and is found in the margin of C and in the text of D.


Cf. Muslim, Sahih (Calcutta, 1265/1849), 11, 193 ff, and esp. 312 and 307, where we find traditions such as: "if the oath of allegiance has been rendered to two caliphs, kill one of them," or another saying that the oath of allegiance to caliphs should be rendered to one at a time.


Cf. n. 256 to Ch. 1, above.


Abu l-Ma'ali'Abd-al-Malik b. 'Abdallah al-Juwayni, 419-478 [1028­10851. Cf. GAL, I, 388 f.; Suppl., I, 671 ff. The reference is to Kitab al-Irshad (Cairo, 1369/1950), p. 425.


Cf. pp. 465 ff., below.


The Malikite Mubammad b. 'All, who was born ca. 459 [10611 and died in 536 [1141]. Cf. GAL, Suppl., I, 663.


Muhyi-ad-din Yabya b. Sharaf, 631-676 [1233-12771. Cf. GAL, I, 394 ff.; Suppl., I, 680 ff.


If the text is correct and I understand it correctly, Ibn Khaldun means to say that al-Mazari and an-Nawawi also were inclined to admit two imams under certain circumstances, and any argument against them did not refer to the alleged existence of a general consensus in this matter, but had merely Muslim's traditions to go on. However, the text should possibly be corrected to radda 'alayhi or radda 'ald <Imam al-haramayn> al-Imam, meaning that the imam al-Mazari and an-Nawawi refuted the Imam al-Haramayn (not with reference to a general consensus but) with reference to the traditions.

The problem could easily be solved by finding out the opinions of al­Mizari and an-Nawawi in this matter from their works, but I have not had the opportunity to do so.


Cf. 3:44, 63, and 144, below.


Qur'an 21.22 (22).


Cf. n. 107 to Ibn Khaldun's Introduction, above.


D has an addition referring to leadership in worldly affairs, which is also found in C but deleted there.


The "hall" (saqifah) of the Banu Sa'idah, in which Abu Bakr's elevation to the caliphate was decided. Cf. also below, p. 403. For Sa'd b. 'Ubadah, cf. K. V. Zettersteen in EI, s.v.


In addition to the historians, cf. also Concordance, I, 103a,11. 6 f.


Cf. Handbook, p. 109a.


Cf. Concordance, I, 401a, III,13a,11. 6 fl.; Ibn Hisham, Sirah, p. 1007.


Cf. al-Bukhari, Sahih, II, 382; Handbook, pp. 128 f.


This statement represents Kharijite doctrine. It is enumerated, together with a great number of related statements, by al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, Kanz al-'ummal (Hyderabad, 1312/1894-95), III, 197, No. 2990.


Cf. Bombaci, p. 448.


According to the historians, 'Umar is supposed to have made this statement on his deathbed. Cf. at-Tabari,.,lnnales, I, 2776 f.

Cf. al-Baqillani, Tamhid, p. 179, where the objection is understood to refer to accepting Silim's advice. The biographers report that Salim acted as prayer leader in the first days of Muslim settlement in Medina, but do not mention 'Umar's statement. Cf. al-Bukhari, Ta'rikh, II, 108; Ibn Sa'd, Tabaqat, III, 60-62; Ibn Hajar, Isabah, II, 108 ff., No. 3049.


Cf. n. 79 to Ch. ii, above.


This refers to the discussion that follows, of the importance of group feeling for the caliphate.


Al-Baqillani, Tamhid, pp. 181 f., definitely considers Qurashite origin a condition of the caliphate.


Normally; the Arabic text would suggest the translation "Kitab as-siyar and other (books)," which does not make much sense. The above translation is also suggested by C, which vocalizes wa-ghayruhu. Cf. p. 7 (n. so), above. Ibn Ishaq's work is usually referred to as the Sirah (Biography of Mubammad), but cf. also n. lo15 to this chapter, below.


Muhammad b. 'Umar, 543 or 544 to 606 [1148/49 or 1149/50 to 1209/101. He is more generally referred to as Fakhr-ad-din ar-Razi. Cf. GAL, I, 506 ff.; Suppl., I, 920 ff.