Cf. Issawi, pp. 148-30. 382


It may be noted that the same word is used also as a technical term of quite a different meaning, namely, "habit." Cf. p. lxxxiv, above.


Cf. pp. 314 ff., above.


"To follow the weakest among you" is the recommended procedure for the prayer leader. Cf. Ibn Hanbal, Musnad (Cairo, 1313/1895), IV, 217; al-Hakim, Mustadrak, I, 199, 201.


Ziyad b. Abihi, who was Mu'awiyah's governor of the 'Iraq and is alleged to have been Mu'iwiyah's half brother, was born in the first year of the Hijrah and died in 53 [673]. Though a very young man at the time, he had some official positions and is supposed somehow to have acted as governor in al-Bqrah in the last year of 'Umar's life. The historians report encounters between him and 'Umar in which he is depicted as a smart young man. However, our estimate of how accurate Ibn Khaldun's story is must await discovery of its source.

In the absence of an express statement by the Prophet, a statement by 'Umar may be considered to express adequately the intention of the "Law­giver" himself. But cf. p. 398, below, and the fact that Ibn Khaldun, in using the term "lawgiver," occasionally thinks of it as a general term, not one restricted to the Lawgiver, Muhammad.


Cf. the beginning of section 23 and 2:103 fl:, below?


This theme dominates all Graeco-Muslim works on ethics. Cf., for instance, F. Rosenthal, "On the Knowledge of Plato's Philosophy in the Islamic World," Islamic Culture, XIV (1940), 416 ff.


Qur'an 3.47 (42), etc.