Cf. Issawi, pp. 127 f.


The translators disagree as to who is to be restricted. De Slane: "to contain those who are defeated." Issawi: "to awe the population." Schimmel (p. 78): "to drive back enemies." The term used here is not common with Ibn Khaldun, but it appears to refer to the restraining influence which is to be exercised upon the native population. The word rad' used here occurs also elsewhere in the same sense in which Ibn Khaldun preferably uses wz'. Cf., for instance, Ibn al-Ukhuwwa, Ma'alim al-qurbah, p. 195, 1. 19, or al­Mubashshir, Mukhtar al-hikam, sayings of Socrates, Nos. 7 & 277( = ed. Badawi [Madrid, 19581, pp. 92 and 117).


That is, it must follow its natural course. Each power can have only the effects depending on its inherent character.


Cf. p. 74 (n. 5), and p. 210, above.


The past tense is used here! The word "there" certainly does not refer to Syria, but to the Byzantine center in Constantinople. This anticipation of the fall of Constantinople may have something to do with traditions and predictions to that effect. Cf. 2:193, below.