translators disagree as to who is to be restricted. De Slane:
"to contain those who are defeated." Issawi: "to awe the
population." Schimmel (p. 78): "to drive back enemies." The term
used here is not common with Ibn Khaldun, but it appears to
refer to the restraining influence which is to be exercised upon
the native population. The word rad' used here occurs
also elsewhere in the same sense in which Ibn Khaldun preferably
uses wz'. Cf., for instance, Ibn al-Ukhuwwa,
Ma'alim al-qurbah, p.
195, 1. 19, or alMubashshir, Mukhtar al-hikam, sayings
of Socrates, Nos. 7 & 277( = ed. Badawi [Madrid, 19581,
pp. 92 and 117).