Cf. Issawi, pp. 133 f.; G. Surdon and L. Bercher, Recueil de testes de sociologie, pp. 59-61.


Cf. p. 187, above, and p. 414, below. The earlier texts have "sound tradition." The word "sound" is deleted in C and does not appear in D at all.


Ahmad b. Qasi died in 546 [1151]. He started his revolt about ten years earlier. Cf. L. Massignon, Recueil de testes inedits concernant l'histoire de la mystique en pays d'Islam (Paris, 1929), pp. 102 f.; M. Asin Palacios, in his edition of Ibn al-'Arif, Mahasin al-majalis (Paris, 1933), p. 5; 'Ibar, VI, 233 f.; de Slane (tr.), II, 184 f. He probably was a member of the Ibn Qasi family mentioned by Ibn Ijazm, Jamharat ansab al-'Arab, pp. 467 f. Cf. also GAL, Suppl., I, 776, where his name is said to be Ibn Qasyt.

The title of his work refers to the Moses story in the Qur'an 20.12 (12), which is given a mystical interpretation; cf. Ibn 'Arabi, Futuhat (Bulaq, 1293/1876), I, 250 f. The work is contained in the Istanbul MS, Sehid Ali Pala 1174 (written in 741 [1340]), fols. 1a-88b, where it is followed by Ibn 'Arabi's commentary, fols. 89a-175b. Only the commentary is contained in Aya Sofya 1879. The name Qasi is vocalized alternately with each of the three vowels in these MSS. * 'Afifi in Bull. Fac. Arts, Alexandria University, XI (1957), 53-87.

The full title is Kitab Khal' an-na'layn wa-qtibas al-anwar min mawtli' al-qadamayn. The work should not be confused, as sometimes happens, with the Kitab khal' an-na'layn fi wusul ild hadrat al jam'ayn by 'Abdallah al­Bosnawl'Abdi, d. 1054 [1644]. Cf. GAL, Suppl., I, 793. MSS of the latter work are preserved in Istanbul Universite, Arabic MS. 3164, and Nafiz (Suleymaniye) 503. Hajji Khalifah, Kashf a;-zunun, 111, 172, mentions 'Abdi's work as a commentary on Ibn Qasi's work (?).


Ibn Khaldun has this word which is the same as the name of the Almoravids. However, Ibn Qasi's followers are said to have been called Muridun (mystic disciples).


Cf. Muslim, Sahih, Kitab al-iman; Ibn al-Ukhuwwa, Ma`alim al­qurbah, ed. R. Levy (E. J. W. Gibb Memorial Series, N.S. No. 12) (London, 1938), p. 18.


The words "in His wisdom" are substituted in C and D for the concluding phrase, "God is wise and knowing," which the earlier texts have.


Other translators have suggested a different translation: "(his) isolation from group feeling would cut him short."


For the following events, cf. at-Tabari, Annales, III, 1008 ff. The role of Ibrahim b. al-Mahdi (cf. p. 40, above, and pp. 430 f., below) is somewhat exaggerated by Ibn Khaldun in retelling the story.


The reading of the text min sawad ahl Baghdad seems doubtful. Ibn Khaldun probably meant to say min ahl Sawad Baghdad "from the people of the Sawad (lower Mesopotamia) of Baghdad." However, at-Tabari states that the man came from Khurisin. In favor of the reading of the text, it may be noted that Ibn Khaldun uses sawdd in the meaning of "people" below, 2:103,1. 4, and 2:300, 1. 4.


At-Tabari graphically describes the procedure: "Khafarah means that someone goes to the owner of a garden and says to him: Your garden is under my protection (khafar). I shall keep away everyone who might want to do mischief there, and you are to pay me so much money each month."


Lit., "slapstick artists."


Cf. pp. 948, 414, and 2:166 ff., below.


Cf. p. 128, above.


The attraction of moths to the flame is interpreted by the Arabs as indicating stupidity rather than eagerness or self-sacrifice. Cf. ath-Tha'alibi, Thimar al-qulub (Cairo, 1326/1908), pp. 399 f. The latter interpretation, however, is that of Muslim mysticism.


Cf. de Slane (tr.), Histoire des Berberes, II, 270 f. The Arabic text is missing in the edition of the 'Ibar.

The story is repeated below, 2:197.


This event, which took place at the end of the thirteenth century, is mentioned again, 2:197 f., below.


Cf. also 'Ibar, VI, 302; de Slane (tr.), II, 388.


Qur'an 6.29 (32); 59.17 (17).