Cf. Issawi, pp. 131-33, and above, pp. 305 f.


Whereas the truth is only one, and means unity of purpose. Cf., for instance, the saying attributed to Plato in al-Mubashshir b. Fitik, Mukhtar al-hikam, No. 227 ( = ed. Madrid, 1958, p. 158); cf. H. Knust, Mittheilungen aus den: Eskurial, p. 229: "Justice in something is one form, whereas injustice is many forms. Therefore it is easy to commit an injustice, and difficult to pursue justice. Justice and injustice are like hitting and missing (the target) in shooting. Hitting (it) requires practice and experience, while it does not require anything of the sort to miss."


Cf., for instance, pp. 296 ff., above.


Cf., p. 17, above.


The very high figures given here and in some of the historical examples mentioned on the following pages, are not usually found in the old sources, such as at-Tabari, al-Mas'udi, etc. This might have warned Ibn Khaldun against using them -had it been as easy for him to check the sources as it is for us.

The Futuh ash-Sha'm, a novelistic elaboration of the conquest of Syria ascribed to al-Waqidi, speaks of four armies, the first three of which con­sisted of 100,000 knights each. This may have given rise to the figure of 400,000 mentioned by Ibn Khaldun. However, Pseudo-Waqidi also mentions 600,000 and 700,000 as the number of Heraclius' troops. Cf. Futuh ash-Sha'm (Cairo, 1354/1935), 1, 102 f.


Istibsar, as p. 320, above, and 2:134, below. The term, based on Qur'an 29.38 (37), is quite frequently used in religious literature. In this passage one might be tempted to read bi-l-intisar "through their willingness to win and die." However, in A, C, and D, where the word is provided with diacritical dots, it is istibsar.


Qur'an 12.21 (21).