Cf. Issawi, pp. 109 f.


bn Khaldun refers to the numerous catechisms and creeds where the caliphate is discussed, usually near the end. Cf., for instance, al-Ash'ari's Kitab al-Luma', ed. and tr. R. J. McCarthy, The Theology of al-Ash'ari (Beirut, 1953).


Wa-'izzi-ha, as in A, B, and C.


The ancient capital of the Banu Hammad, northeast of Msila.


Muhammad b. Mubammad, d. 460 [1067/68]. Cf. GAL, I, 268; Suppl., I, 473; C. Pellat in Bulletin des etudes arabes, VIII-IX (1948-49).

The verses, however, are not by Ibn Sharaf but by his contemporary Ibn Rashiq (see n. 23 to p. 10, above), who recited them in the presence of Ibn Sharaf. They are often quoted. Cf., for instance, Ibn Bassam, Dhakhirah (Cairo, 1364/1945), IV 1, 134; Ibn Sa'id, El Libro de las Banderas de los Campeones, ed. and tr. E. Garcla Gomez (Madrid, 1942), p. lot; Yaqut, Irshad, VII, 96; al-Maqqari, Analectes, I, 131 f. Cf. also p. 470, below.


Cf. p. 61, above.


The reference apparently is to Ch. XLV of the Siraj al-muluk, which deals with the relationship between ruler and army. See p. 122 of the ed. (Cairo, 1289/1872). For criticism of at-Turtushi, cf. also 2:87, below.


Qur'an 2.247 (248).