Or, more generally, "who has shown himself so courageous."


Cf. at-Tabari, Annales, I, 2346.


Told "he recited." Cf, the term matluw, p. 192 (n. 261), above, and p. 437 and 3:113, 284, below.


Cf. 3:306, below.


Cf. P. 223, above.


Cf. also 3:206, below. In the city of Ibn Khaldun's ancestors, it was prescribed ca. 1100 that "an older child should not be struck more than five times, nor a small one more than three, and the severity of the blows should be according to the strength of the individual children to stand them." Cf. E. Levi-Provengal, "Le Traite d 'Ibn 'AbdGn," Journal asiatique, CCXXIV (1934), 214; tr. by the same, Seville musulmane au debut du XII a siecle (Islam d'hier et d'aujourd'hui, No. 2) (Paris, 1947), pp. 53 f.


Shurayh lived in the seventh century and is said to have been appointed judge of al-Kufah by 'Umar. Cf. J. Schacht, The Origins of Muhammadan Jurisprudence (Oxford, 1950), pp. 228 f.


Cf. pp. 201 f., above. The story of the threefold choking is here under­stood as an educational measure, serving the purpose of teaching Muhammad how to read the writing revealed to him by Gabriel.


Qur'an 6.18 (18), 73 (73); 34.1 (1).