As a sociological term, "Arab" is always synonymous with "Bedouin, nomad" to Ibn Khaldun, regardless of racial, national, or linguistic distinctions.


Ibn Khaldun was familiar with this phrase for "preparing food in the open fire" through the hadith literature. Cf. F. Rosenthal, A History of Muslim Historiography, p. 206.


Though the Arabic text need not be understood as saying that there exists a relationship between the Slavs and the Turks, it is the most natural construction to understand it that way. It has been shown that Muslim geographers did not always mean precisely Slavs when they spoke about the Saqalibah. (Cf. A. Zeki Validi Togan, Ibn Fadlan's Reisebericht, pp. 295 ff.) However, the above statement should not be taken too literally, and the term used for "relatives" (ikhwan "brethren") may perhaps be translated as "companions" or the like, implying no real relationship.


Tall, pl. tulul "hills." The expression reflects the situation in north­western Africa rather than in Arabia.


Cf. p. 265 and 2:353, below, and 'Ibar, II, 336 f.


Bulaq, apparently by mistake, has "to humiliate them" for the rest of the sentence.


Qur'an 15.86 (86); 36.81 (81).