Cf. Issawi, pp. 46 f.


Cf. R. Dozy in Journal asiatique, XIV6 (1869),151, and Supplement au.r dictionnaires arabes, II, 831b. Cf. also A. Mez, Die Renaissance des Islams (Heidelberg, 1922), p. 157. For the theory that expansion and contraction of the animal spirit cause joy or sadness, cf. F. Rosenthal, Humor in Early Islam, p. 137.


Qur'an 15.86 (86); 36.81 (81).


Cf. al-Mas'udi, Muruj adh-dhahab, I, 164 f. For the famous ninth­century philosopher al-Kindi, see GAL, 1, 209 f.; Suppl., I, 372 ff. From among the many recent publications concerning him, we may mention M. 'A. Abu Ridah, Rasd'il al-Kindi al falsafiyah (Cairo, 1369-72/1950-53). Cf. also R. Walzer, "The Rise of Islamic Philosophy," Oriens, III (1950), 1-19.


Qur'an 2.142 (136), 213 (209), etc.