Cf. Issawi, pp. 42-46.


Bulaq adds here: "and religions, even including the various (manifestations of) prophecy that are mostly to be found there, in as much as no historical information about prophetic missions in the southern and northern zones has come to our notice. This is because only those representatives of the (human) species who have the most perfect physique and character are distinguished by prophets and messengers. The Qur'an says [3.110 (106)], 'You are the best group (ever) produced for mankind.' The purpose of this is to have the divine message of the prophets fully accepted."

The available MSS, including E, do not have this passage, which apparently was deleted by Ibn Khaldun very early as superfluous, in view of such later remarks as those below, pp. 169 and 173.


Bulaq adds: "Romans (Rum), Greeks............... "


 See p. 119, above. See also 2:958 f., below.


Qur'an 16.8 (8).


See p. l00, above.


Cf. Gen. 9:25.


See p. 106, above.


As we can observe throughout this chapter, the same Arabic word is used by Ibn Khaldun to designate temperateness of climate and living conditions, and the resulting temperance of moral qualities.


 See p. 167, above.


Cf. the translation of Avicenna's poem by K. Opitz in Quellen and Studien zur Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften and der Medizin, VII (1939), 162, vv. 50-51. The same work appears to have been the subject of a study by H. Jahier and A. Noureddine, in IVe Congres de la Federation des Societes de Gynecologie et d'Obstetrique (1952), pp. 50-59, and of a new edition and translation by the same authors, published in 1956.

On the subject of the origin of the black and the white colors of skin, cf. also Rasa'il Ikhwan as-safa' (Cairo, 1347/1928), I, 233 f.


See n. 139 to this chapter, above.


Bulaq and B have "names."


Cf. lssawi, p. 50.


Cf. Qur'an 33.62 (62); 35.43 (41); 48.23 (2s). The last sentence is also often translated, "You will not find any change in God's way." The translation given in the text appears to represent the meaning as intended by the Prophet. It would be difficult to be certain about Ibn Khaldun's understanding of the passage. Qur'an commentators, such as al-Bayjawi, combine both translations.