The material presented on pp. 94-103 represents the common stock of Muslim geographical knowledge, but here (and even more for pp. 116-66) Ibn Khaldun relies mainly upon the Nuzhat al-mushtaq, or, as he occasionally calls it (cf. pp. 97 and 103), the Book of Roger, by Muhammad b. Muham­mad al-ldrisi, ca. A.D. 1099/1100-1162. Cf. GAL, I, 477; 2d ed., I, 628; Suppl., I, 876 f. Al-ldrisi wrote his important geographical work for Roger II of Sicily (1129-1154). It was completed the year Roger died. Although Ibn Khaldun's basis is the work by al-ldrisi, he occasionally adds to the information he found there, from his own knowledge.

No reliable text of al-Idrisi's work has so far been published, nor do we have any translation and commentary of the entire book that would satisfy modern scientific requirements. An abridgment was published in Rome in 1592, and translated by Gabriel Sionita and loannes Hesronita in Paris in 1619, under the title of Geographia Nubensis. A rough translation of the work was attempted by P. A. Jaubert (Paris, 1836-40).

While the whole work is thus not available in the true sense of the word, there have been a good number of detailed studies of small sections of it, in particular those concerned with the marginal areas to the north. Among the older studies, we may mention R. Dozy and M. J. de Goeje, Description de I'Afrique et de l'Espagne (Leiden, 1866); M. Amari and C. Schiaparelli, L'Italia descritta net "Libro del Re Ruggiero" (Atti della Reale Accademia dei Lincei, Ser. 2, Vol. VIII) (Rome, 1883); J. Gildemeister in Zeitschrlft des Deutschen Paldstina Vereins, VIII (1885), 117-45. Some of the recent studies are: O. J. Tallgren-Tuulio and A. M. Tallgren, ldrisi, La Finlande et les autres pays Baltiques orientaux in Studia Orientalia (ed. Societas Orientalis Fennica), 111 (1930); 0. J. Tallgren (Tuulio), Du Nouveau sur ldrisi, ibid., VI 3 (1936); W. Hoenerbach, Deutschland and seine Nachbarlander nach der grossen Geographie des ldrisi (Bonner Orientalistische Studien, No. 21) (Stuttgart, 1938); T. Lewicki, La Pologne et les pays voisins dans le "Livre de Roger" de al-ldrisi (Cracow, 1945; Warsaw, 1954); D. M. Dunlop, "Scotland According to al-ldrisi" in Scottish Historical Review, XXVI (1947); W. B. Stevenson, " Idrisi's Map of Scotland," ibid., XXVII (1948), 202-4;

A. F. L. Beeston, "Idrisi's Account of the British Isles," Bulletin of the British Schools of Oriental Studies, XIII (1950), 265-80, etc.

In this section, particularly, the notes had to be severely restricted. As a rule, no special reference is made to the inaccuracies that were unavoidable in Ibn Khaldun's and al-ldrisi's time, regardless of the remarkable geographical information they possessed.

Ibn Khaldun speaks again briefly about the oceans and zones in the Autobiography, pp. 351 ff.


Cf. Issawi, pp. 38 f.


Cf. also p. 110, below. Ibn Khurradadhbih, in his Masalik, prefers the comparison to an egg yolk swimming in the white. The Rasa'il Ikhwan as­safa (Cairo, 1347/1928), I, 114, think of a half egg submerged in water. Al-ldrisi, too, mentions the comparison with a submerged egg.


Cf. Qur'an 2.30 (28), etc., and n. 212 to Ch. m, below.


Cf 'Ibar, VI, 98; de Slane (tr.), 1, 187. Cf. also Ibn 'Idhari al­Marrakushi, al-Baydn al-mughrib, ed. G, S. Colin and E. Levi-Provengal (Leiden, 1948-51), I, 6. The editors vocalize the word al-ablayuh. De Slane thought to find here a corruption of Atlant(ic), which seems hardly possible. He compared pelagos, pelagus, which also is very difficult, though it may be mentioned that the Latin word pelagus occurs in connection with Spain in the opening pages of Orosius, whose work was translated into Arabic. Lablayah, as the word is vocalized in B and C, does not look like a Berber word, but may have been derived from the Romance languages perhaps, el mare?


B vocalizes Uqyanus; A, C, and D Ufyanus.


C has "straight" in the text; it is crossed out and replaced in the margin by "circular." All the features that Ibn Khaldun describes here can be easily traced on the map reproduced here, which is identical with the one that Ibn Khaldun had in front of him when he wrote this section.


Iqlim, Greek klime, "clime."


For Muslim information about the length of the degree, see C. A. Nallino, " Il valore metrico del grado di meridian secondo i geografi arabi," Raccolta di scritti editi e inediti (Rome, 1939-48), V, 408 ff. The value of seventy-five miles is credited by Arabic authors to Ptolemy (Nallino, ibid., pp. 416 ff). Since an Arabic mil "mile" usually can be considered to be about two kilometers, or one and a quarter English miles more exactly, according to Nallino, 1973.2 m. this is far too large a value for the length of a degree. However, the Muslims were familiar with much more accurate data, as Nallino points out; and see also below, p. 113. The figure of seventy-five miles is found, for instance, in al-Mas`udi, Muruj adh-dhahab, III, 490 f., and in al-Idrtsi. The standard gauge indicated above is derived from al­Idrisi; cf also al-Mas'udi, loc. cit., and Nallino, op. cit., V, 284.


Cf. p. 105, below. Ibn Khaldun realized later on that this fact, and, more especially, the theory of the identical latitudinal extension of the different zones mentioned in the next paragraph, were not safely established as he had originally thought. Therefore he added the long discussion below, pp. 112f. and 114 f.


For knowledge of Ptolemy's Geography among the Arabs, cf. Nallino, op. Cit., V, 458 ff., and GAL, Suppl., I, 382. The seven-zone division is of Greek origin but is not found in Ptolemy. Cf. E. Honigmann, Die sieben Klimata (Heidelberg, 1929).


See n. 11, above, and pp. 103 and 116, below.


The MSS, with the exception of D, add Denia. Denia was the overlord of the Baleares, but it is strange for Ibn Khaldun to refer to it as an island. Since Majorca is already mentioned, Denia seems clearly an oversight.


Arabic Bahr Nilush, an accepted misreading for "Pontus."


The MSS have the spelling Hryqlyh. See also n. 191 to this chapter, below.


Ibn Khaldun mentions later both Burjan and Bulghar. Both refer to the same group. Cf. V. Minorsky, Hudud al-alam (E. J. W. Gibb Memorial Series, n.s. No. 11) (Oxford & London, 1937), p. 423.


Ibn Khaldun's definition of the distinction between the Abyssinians and the Zanj is found below, p. 171.


Cf. his Diwan, ed. W. M. de Slane (Paris, 1837), p. 27; (tr.) p. 42. Cf. also 'Ibar, VI, 199; de Slane (tr.), II, 107.


This is rather an elusive country in Muslim geography. It may be identified with Madagascar, as would seem to apply here, or possibly with the whole east coast of Africa, about which Muslim geographers had no clear idea. It has also been tentatively identified with Sumatra, and even with Japan. Cf. Minorsky, op. cit., p. 278, and below, p. 123.


Arabic al-Bujah, as always vocalized in the MSS.


The mention of Fustat shows that, basically, the information presented here goes back to a time before the foundation of Cairo in 969/70.


Juddah, as vocalized in the MSS.


That is, the Biblical Paran. Cf. also p. 132, below.


For the Iwan Kisra, to which Ibn Khaldun repeatedly refers as an impressive monument of pre-Islamic dynasties, see pls., iia, iib, below.


Ibn Khaldun did not accept the reading qamar "moon," which, as we know from Ptolemy, is correct. Following Ibn Sa'id, he read Qumr, considered to be the name of some "Indian" people. Cf p. 120, below. The vocalization in the MSS seems to be Qumur. Cf. Minorsky, Huddd, p. 205. For the island of the Qmr, meaning Java or the entire Malay Archipelago, see below, p. 123.


See the map (following p. 110) for the generally accepted theory as to the common origin of the Nile and the Senegal (or the Niger), and p. 118, below. Cf. J. H. Kramers in EI, s,v. "al-Nil."


That is, the Syr Darya (Jaxartes). Cf. Minorsky, Huddd, p. 72.


Cf. Minorsky, Hudud, pp. 268 ff.; idem, Sharaf al-ZamdnTahir Marvazi on China, the Turks, and India (James G. Forlong Fund, No. 22) (London, 1942), pp. 106 f.; P. Kraus, Jabir Ibn Hayyan, II, 75 (nn. 8, 5). While Kharlukh appears to be the correct form, Ibn Khaldun reads the name as al-Khazlajiyah, or al-Hazlajiyah. Cf. also pp. 158, 149, below. On p. 149, MS. C has kh-z-l-khiyah.


This is explained below, pp.112 and 115.


Cf. Issawi, pp. 39 f.


Mubammad b. Ahmad b. Rushd, 520-595 11126-11981. Cf. GAL, I, 461 f.; Suppl., I, 833 ff.


Translation of mu'tadil in the usual way by "temperate" would not seem to be correct here. The word must here be translated by "symmetrical," or the like. This becomes clear from the discussion of Averroes' view of the problem found in L. Gauthier, Ibn Rochd (Paris, 1948), pp. 84 ff. Averroes argues against the opinion advanced by Ibn Tufayl that the region around the equator was temperate. He maintains that Ibn Tufayl misunderstood the word mu'tadil, which could mean both "uniform" (symmetrical) and "temperate." Averroes further rejects the idea that the southern part of the earth contains habitable areas comparable to those in the north.

This would seem, in effect, the direct opposite of the opinion Ibn Khaldun here attributes to Averroes. However, the latter came out elsewhere for the theory of a habitable area in the south, which would be in a symmetrical position with relation to that in the north, as we learn from Gauthier, ibid., pp. 87 f. Consequently, Ibn Khaldun's report on Averroes here is incomplete in a way, misleading - but it is not incorrect. Cf. also C. Issawi, Osiris, X (1952), 114 f.

The idea that the equator has a temperate climate is also mentioned in al-Biruni, Chronologie orientalischer Volker, ed. C. E. Sachau (Leipzig, 1878; 1923), p. 258; tr. by the same (London, 1879), p. 249.


The map is executed only in C and in MS. Nuru Osmaniye, 3066, fol. 24a. The fact that even important MSS such as A and B do not have a map would seem to show that a special artist was required to draw it, who was not always available.

The map in C, which we have reproduced, is identical in nearly every detail with the map of the world in al-ldrisi's geographical work. Al-Idrisi's world map in the Oxford MS is reproduced in K. Miller, Mappae Arabicae, Vol. VI (Stuttgart, 1927), pl. it. A drawing of it is to be found, ibid., Vol. V (Stuttgart, 1931), between pp. 160 and 161. The Istanbul MS of al-ldrisi, Koprulu, 955, contains the map on pp. 4 and 5. Cf. also the map reproduced in G. H. T. Kimble, Geography in the Middle Ages (London, 1938), pl. v.


The text of this section is that of C and D, which incorporates Ibn Khaldun's corrections of earlier oversights. The earlier text is printed in italic type at the foot of the pages that follow. In the later stage of the text, asterisks mark the beginning and end of the paralleled passages. Cf. n. 20, above.


Cf. p. 95, above.


See p. 112, below.


The reference to al-Khazini appears in the margin of C and is incorporated in the text of D.

Nothing seems to be known about this man. This is very strange, since he was evidently one of the older Muslim scholars, and our information about early Arabic scientists is probably as good as Ibn Khaldun's. He may have found him quoted in one of the works he consulted. This al-Khazini cannot be identical with Aba Jafar al-Khazin, because the latter is quoted below, p. 115, for different data.


See pp. 114 f., below.


According to F. Boll, Studien fiber Claudius Ptolemaus (Leipzig, 1894), pp. 189 f., Ptolemy expressed different opinions as to the extent of the oikoumenei. In the Tetrabiblos, and apparently also in the Almagest, he assumed that it extended to the equator, whereas in the Geography he determined it as extending to 16° 25' S.


Lit., ". . . the latitudinal extension of the first zone is 16°."


The figures are not Ptolemy's. They ought to be understood as indi­cating the limits of the zones. Thus, for instance, the second zone is assumed to extend from 16° N to 20° N, and so on. However, the seventh zone should, in this case, extend to 661/2°. Obviously, the statement of the pre­ceding sentence, that the latitudinal extension of the northern zones is 661/2° is wrong. That figure is the boundary of the cultivated part of the earth. There is cultivation beyond the northern boundary of the seventh zone which, according to this passage, extends to 48° N.

The following computation of the extension of the zones in miles as­sumes, apparently, that the figures here refer to the extension of the zones in geographical degrees. Still, the figures are quite wrong. They should be: 1,800; 1,333.3; 1,800; 2,200; 2,533.3; 2,866.6; and 3,200. If one corrects the figures for the second and third zones from 2,333 and 2,790 to 1,333 and 1,790 respectively, they are almost correct. However, as the MSS show, Ibn Khaldun certainly wrote 2,333 and 2,790.

For the latitudes of the zones, see also al-Biruni, Kitdb at-tafhim, ed. and tr. R. R. Wright (London, 1934), p. 138. E. Honigmann's discussion of the extension of the zones according to Arabic geographers does not include late authors such as Ibn Khaldun. Cf. Honigmann, Die sieben Klimata, pp. 163, 180, and 189.


See pp. 96 f., above.


See p. 105, above.


Lit., "The latitudinal extension of the second zone is 24°. . ."


D adds 20' (intended to replace 1/2°?).


Abu Jafar Muhammad al-Khizin (not al-Khazini), an astronomer of the tenth century. Cf. GAL, Suppl., I, 387; G. Vajda in Rivista degli studi orientali, XXV (1950), 8.


D has what is apparently an error: 55° 40'.


Qur'an 25.2 (2). The word translated here by "determined" or "gave it its power" is taken by Ibn Khaldun here to mean "gave it its measurements.".


See n. 11 to this chapter, above. It is obvious that in the following description, Ibn Khaldun relied upon the sectional maps that accompanied al-ldrisi's work. They are reproduced in Vol. VI of K. Miller, Mappae Arabicae.


The works of all these authors are preserved.

For 'Ubaydallah b. 'Abdallah b. Khurradadhbih, who lived in the first half of the ninth century, see GAL, I, 225 f.; Suppl., 1, 404.

For Abu1-Qasim b. Hawqal, of the tenth century, see GAL, I, 229; Suppl., I, 408. A new edition of his work was made by J. H. Kramers (Leiden, 1938-39).

For Ahmad b. 'Umar al-'Udhri, 593-478 [1003-1085], see E. Levi­Provencal, La Peninsule Ibirique (Leiden, 1938), p. xxiv (n. 2); F. Rosenthal, A History of Muslim Historiography, p. 409 (n. 4). (A forthcoming edition of al-'Udhri's work is announced in Revue de l'Institut des Manuscrits Arabes, I (1955), 343. It was not known heretofore that the work was preserved.)

For Ishaq al-Munajjim, whose eleventh century dates are rather uncertain, see GAL, Suppl., I, 405; R. Frye in Journal of Near Eastern Studies, VIII (1949), 90-97.


This information is not from al-Idrisi. Consequently, the century in which the event mentioned occurred would seem to be that in which Ibn Khaldun wrote. Cf. R. Hennig, Terrae Incognitae (Leiden, 1944-56), III, 248 fl.


'Aysh, originally "life."


The distinction between the two terms is approximately that between sailors of the high seas and those of coastal waters.


Arabic kunbas.


See p. 101, above.


The island of Arguin, southeast of Cape Blanco. Cf. R. Hennig, "Die atlantische 'Salzinsel' der arabischen mittelalterlichen Geographen," Der Islam, XXVI (1942), 58-63.


De Slane, it seems, thought of Sili on the Black Volta. However, in the absence of further indications as to the situation of the city, this identification is as uncertain as any other that might be suggested.


Senegal Negroes, known today as Tukulor. Cf. M. Delafosse in EI, s.v. "Takrur."


For this once important city in the western Sudan, cf. G. Yver in EI, s.v. "Ghana."


The people of the Mandingo (Malinke) empire. Cf. H. Labouret in EI, s.v. "Mali," and s.v. "Mandingo."

For information about Ghanah and the Mali, Gawgaw, and Takrur, cf. G. Ferrand, "Le Tuhfat al-albab de Abu Hamid al-Andalusi al-Garnati," Journal asiatique, CCVII (1925), 41 f., 249 fl. Cf. also 'Ibar, VI, 198 ff.; de Slane (tr.), II, 109 ff. Ibn Khaldun's source here is Ibn Sa'id. Cf., further, M. Meyerhof in Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine, XXX (1937), 670 f.; and idem in Journal of the Royal Egyptian Medical Association, XXIV (1941), 284-86.


Cf. p. 168, below.


According to E. Laoust in Hesperis, XVIII (1934), 117, this place name is to be connected with Berber agrur, meaning "heap of stones," among other things.


Cf. also 'Ibar, VI, 59, 103; de Slane (tr.), I, 116, 198.


Ibn Khaldun repeats this information in 'Ibar, IV, 99, and V, 433.


This is the way the name of this Negro people is vocalized in B and C.


Cf. 'Ibar, VI, 200; de Slane (tr.), II, 110.


Cf. G. Yver in EI, s.v. "Kanem."


The spelling is indicated in C. See n. 185 to Ibn Khaldun's Introduction, above.


Bulaq: Zaghawah. A seems to have here the wrong form, Zaghawah (!), but later on has Zaghawah. B has the usual form Zaghawah, but indicates that the word should be corrected to Zaghay, as we find it in C and D and on the map. See also p. 125, below. Some bibliographical information on the present-day Zaghawah of the Sudan may be found in H. A. Wieschhoff, Anthropological Bibliography of Negro Africa (American Oriental Series, No. 23) (New Haven, 1948), p. 456.


The r in the name is attested as Ibn Khaldun's reading in all texts. The maps of al-Idrisi have w (Tadjoua = Dageou?); cf. M. Reinaud, Geographie d'Aboulfeda (Paris, 1848-83),111, 224.


"Above" and "below" on Arabic maps correspond to south and north. For the southern "orientation" of Arabic maps, see the remarks by G. Ferrand, Journal asiatique, CCVII (1925), 88 f., who states that it also occurs in Chinese and some medieval Western maps. Its origin seems to be as obscure as that of our northern orientation. Aristotle De coelo 285b 22-24, may have served as an inspiration for and justification of both. In the following pages, the words "above" and "below" have as a rule been translated "south" and "north," respectively.


The edition of this work by F. Wustenfeld (Gottingen, 1846), has an entry al-qumr, which, however, does not contain the information Ibn Khaldun mentions here. Cf. also Yaqut, Mu'jam al-buldan, ed. Wustenfeld (Gottingen, 1866-73), IV, 862, I. 20, where the source of the Nile is said to be in the "land of the Qmr."


On this thirteenth-century historian, an important source for Ibn Khaldun in many respects, see n, 58 to Ibn Khaldun's Introduction, above, and 9:445 (n. 1810), below.


Cf. p. lot, above.


The reference to Rosetta is a later addition in B and C, but is found already in Bulaq and A.


A medieval country in the area of modern Khartum. Cf. J. S. Triming­ham, Islam in the Sudan (Oxford University Press, 1949), pp. 72 ff. D has Ghalwah, as one finds sometimes.


This is the form in which the name appears in the MSS. It has been read Bilaq, the island of Philae near Assuan, but the indications given here and in al-Idrisi do not fit that reading.


B and C add here (in the margin): "after passing opposite Mogadishu on the southern coast of the Indian Ocean." This is nonsensical.


Cf., for instance, J. S. Trimingham, op. cit., index, s.v.


For Haly, cf. H. C. Kay, Yaman (London, 1892), p. 166; Yaqut, Mujam al-buldan, II, 827.


This sentence and the first six words of the next appear in the margin of B and C and in the text of D.


See p. 99, above.


On Jazirat al-Qumr, cf. n. 85 to this chapter, above.


As-Silo. Cf. Minorsky-Marvazi, p. 89. (See n. 38 to this chapter, above.)


See n. 9 to this chapter, above.


Near Zabid. Cf. Yaqut, Mujam al-buldan, IV, 692; 'Ibar, IV, 103.


The MSS have Khinku. Al-Idrisi appears to have Khanqu. Therefore, k may represent an attempt at interpreting q as g, possibly under the influence of some recollection of the name of the other Chinese city which the older geographers mention with this one, namely, Khinju. Cf., for instance, al­Birunl, Kitdb at-Tafhlm, p. 143. Q in Khinqu is now commonly considered to be a misreading of Khanfu, Canton. Cf. W. Barthold in EI, s.v. " Khanfu," and Minorsky-Marvazi, pp. 22, 82.


Apparently, Kanuri of Bornu.


This is the vocalization of the MSS.


Bulaq corrects to the well-known Guzulah. Cf. 2:197, below.


Bulaq corrects to the well-known Zanitah group of Misritah.


See n. 77 to this chapter, above.


For Siwa and its medieval Arabic name Santariyah, cf. E. Laoust in El, s.v. "Siwa."


Both Jurash and Tabalah are described as belonging to the Tihamah and the Yemen.


Also called at-Tabaran. Cf. Ibn Khurradadhbih, Kitdb al-Masalik wa­1-mamulik, p. 55 (text); p. 37 (tr.).


Ballahra appears to be a royal title (Vallabharaya?). As the name of a country, it seems to refer to the Deccan. Cf. Minorsky, Hudud, p. 238; Minorsky-Marvazi, p. 146.


Cf. Minorsky-Marvazi, pp. 48 f., 149.


Al-Qandahar. Cf. Minorsky, Hudud, p. 254; Minorsky-Marvazi, p. 152 (n. 3). Instead of "east," one should read "north."


The obviously incorrect addition of: "extending to the Surrounding Sea," is eliminated in D. In C it appears as a marginal addition. At the end of the paragraph, "zone" is a mistake for "section."


It has been suggested that this is identical with the above-mentioned Canton (Khayghun < Khayfun <Khanfun <Khanfu [Khanfu]).


Arabic Daran; Dyrin, Addirin in classical geographical literature: Strabo xvii. 825; Pliny v. 73. Cf. Pauly-Wissowa, Realencyclopadie, s.v. "Durnus," "Dyrin." Daran is to be connected with the pl. idraren of Berber adrar "mountain." Cf., for instance, G. Mercier, Journal asiatique, CCV (1924), 264. Modern Berbers use the form dren (adrar n dren). Cf. L. Justinard, "Textes Chleuh de loued Nfis," in Memorial H. Basset (Paris, 1928), I, 133 (n. 1). Cf. also R. Thouvenot, "La Montagne Marocaine chez Pline l'Ancien," Hesperis, XXVI (1939), 118.


In Vol. VI of the 'Ibar.


Or Missat, Miss At. Cf. also p. 326 and 2:196 f., below.


Cf. E. Levi-Provencal in EI, s.v. "al-Sus al-Aksa ."


For the i vowel in the first syllable, cf. Abmad Bibi, Jtayl al-ibtihaj, pp. 140 f.: al-Jidmiwi. Cf. also the spelling Kydmiwah in 'Ibar, VI, 228, if the text is correct.


Spelled with s, with a z written underneath. Cf. p. 67, above, and 2:197, below. Cf., further, 'Ibar, VI, 205; de Slane (tr. ), 11, 122; G. S. Colin, Hesperis, X (1930), 110.


Bulaq has "north," and C had "north" in the text, but in the margin we find "north" corrected to "east." "North" is correct, but possibly Ibn Khaldun himself made the wrong change.


Today Alcazarquivir, according to I. S. Allouche, Hespiris, XXV (1938), 2.


Spelled with s with a z written underneath. Cf. above, p. 67.


Cf. p. lii, above.


Sic correctly Bulaq, but A, B, C, and D have "section."


Cf., for instance, W. Hoenerbach, Das nordafrikanische Itinerar des Abdari (Abhandlungen fur die Kunde des Morgenlandes, No. 25) (Leipzig, 1940), p. 161.


Of the several Zawilah in the area mentioned by Yiqut, Mu jam al­buldan, II, 960 f., none, according to Yaqut, is qualified by Ibn Khattab. Cf., however, the information given by Ibn l.awgal in his geographical work, ed. J. H. Kramers, I, 106.


The doubling of the second consonant is indicated in the MSS, but the vocalization of this name and that of the following Ruwahah is uncertain. Some information is found in 'Ibar, VI, 72 f.; de Slane (tr.), I, 136 f. Cf. also Hoenerbach, op. cit., p. 159.


B and C vocalize Zaftah.


Sic according to the correction suggested by Quatremere. The original Trwt is corrected in B and C to Dhrwt. D has D as the first consonant.




The MSS vocalize al-Farma.


Cf. Qur'an 5.26 (29). Cf. pp. 288 and 344, below.


Or 'Irqah. Cf. G. Wiet in Journal asiatique, XI 18 (1921), 112 f.


This mountain is different from Mount as-Sarah in Arabia, mentioned by the Arab geographers. Ash-Sharah is apparently identical with the element Shard occurring in the name of the Nabataean deity Dusares. Cf. also pp. 409 and 420, below, and 'Ibar, II, 211.


See pp. 407 f., below.


The description would hardly fit the Jordan depression. On al-Idrisi's sectional map, the legend Bilad al-Ghawr min ash-Sha'm starts at the Jordan and continues left almost up to Adhri'it. This explains Ibn Khaldun's statement.


It should be north. On al-Idrisi s sectional map, Ba'lbakk is located northeast of Damascus.


The MSS and editions of the Muqaddimah have a final n. B and C vocalize ar-Suman. Ibn Khaldun may have thought again of the afore­mentioned as-Sammin. The correction ad-Dimir, suggested by de Slane in his translation, supplies a locality that would fit into the context (cf. Yaqut, op. cit., III, 479).


Kufich, in its Persian form. Cf. Minorsky, Hudud, p. 374.


As indicated by al-Idrisi and the geographers, this is the plural of zamm, meaning "district, habitat." The geographical handbooks often list the word under r, but z is clearly indicated here and is the correct form. Cf. M. J. de Goeje, Indices . . . (Bibliotheca Geographorum Arabicorum, No. 4) (Leiden, 1879), pp. 251 f.; idem (ed.), Ibn Khurradidhbih, Kitab al-Masalik wa-l-mamalik, p. 47. In the latter passage, de Goeje refers to Kurdish xdmah as the original word. Cf. also H. L. Fleischer, Kleinere Schriften (Leipzig, 1888), II, 546.


The MSS add: "and Quhistan" (or: "and Quhistan is"). However, Quhistan is merely the Arabic spelling of Kuhistan


B, C, and D vocalize al-Khulkh. Cf. p. 149, below, and esp. the Khulukh Turks, p. 161, below. It was thought that this people were identical with the Kharlukh, but Minorsky, Hudud, pp. 347 f., maintains the distinctive character of the names Khalaj and Kharlukh (Khallukh).


Cf. Minorsky, Hudud, p. 359.


Wakhsh-ab "River of Wakhsh" is the part of the Amu Darya system that furnished the Greeks with the name of Ores. For the Oxus in history, cf. also J. Markwart, Wehrot and Arang (Leiden, 1938).


Cf. Ibn Khurradadhbih, Kitdb al-Masalik wa-l-mamalik, p. 34 (text); p. 24 (tr.).


As the sectional map of al-Idrisi shows, the Wakhshab flows into the Oxus south of at-Tirmidh, and the river of the country of Wakhsh north of it.


Identical with the unnamed river mentioned in Minorsky, Hudud, p. 71?


In the fourth zone.


See n. 38 to this chapter, above, and p. 149, below.


Bulaq adds: "also to the end of the section."


Ibn Khaldun pronounced the name Bagharghar. However, below, p. 172, he had the form al-Tagharghar. For the Tughuzghuz, cf. Minorsky, Hudud, pp. 263 ff.


Ibn Khaldun pronounced the name Kharkhir, or Khirkhir. Cf. Minorsky, Hudud, pp. 282 ff.; Minorsky-Marvazi, pp. 104 f.


Cf. Minorsky, Hudud, pp. 304 ff.; Minorsky-Marvazi, p. 107.


See n. 9 to this chapter, above.


This location is usually thought to be the site of the above-mentioned al-Qa,r as-saghir (p. 129), nor can it have been far from it.


For this geographical name, cf. E. Levi-Provengal, La Pininsule Ibirique, p. 75 (n. 1), and the same scholar's edition of an-Nubahi, Histoire des Juges d'Andalousie intitulee Kitab al-Markaba al 'ulya [al-Marqabah al-`ulyd] (Cairo, 1948), p. 82. However, the MSS definitely indicate t and not b. It is difficult to assume that Ibn Khaldun was not familiar enough with the geography of this particular part of Spain to avoid a mistake here. Therefore, de Slane's identification with Montillo cannot be ruled out.


Evora is west of Badajoz and Merida.


Cf. E. Levi-Provencal, La Peninsule Iberique, p. 167, where an identification with Guijo, northwest of Pedroche, is suggested, and the edition of an­Nubahl, p. 238, where Ghafiq is identified with Belacazar.


Bulaq has Tortosa.


This is not correct. "East," as we find in the Paris edition, is no better.


E. Levi-Provencal, La Peninsule Iberique, p. 126.


"And" seems a necessary correction of Bulaq. The other texts have "north of."


Jabal al-burtat "Mountain of the Gates (porta)."


It corresponds to the Taurus. Cf. M. Canard, Histoire de la dynastie des H'amdanides (Algiers, 1951), 1, 255. For the Durub, ibid., I, 243.


I.e., Antartus, Antaradus.


For Masyat (Magyad, Malyaf, Mayab), cf. R. Dussaud, Topographie historique de la Syrie antique et midievale (Bibliotheque archeologique et historique, No. 4) (Paris, 1927), p. 143.


When the Muqaddimah was being written, the ruling Ottoman was Murid I b. Orkhan.


Ibn Khaldun certainly read Ankara, but this is impossible. Bulaq has al-Ma'arrah, which is equally wrong but shows that Ibn Khaldun might have had some other reading than Ankara in his earliest text. The sectional maps of al-Idrisi have the correct reading Zibatrah. A misreading Ankara, for Zibatrah, which already in the time of al-Idrisi had been in ruins for centuries, is easily explained.


 This village is mentioned in Ibn Khurradadhbih, Kitab al-Masalik wa-l-mamalik, p. 72 (text), where the editor suggests that it be read ar-Rabb.


This is a corruption of al-Bahlawiyin "Pahlavis (Parthia)," which appeared in the older geographers. Cf. Ibn Khurradidhbih, op. cit., p. 57 (text); p. 38 (n. 3) (tr.).


Cf. Minorsky, Hudud, pp. 202 f.


Cf. Minorsky, Hudud, p. 398.


The reference to the Black Sea is out of place here.


Bistam is in Khurasan.


Cf. A. Jakoubovsky in EI Supplement, s.v. "Merw al-Shahidjan."


B and C vocalize Zum. B has ay-ahiriyah, instead of at-Tahiriyah.


Cf. Minorsky, Hudud, p. 356.


The reference to Khujandah, which was mentioned before as situated in the southeast of the section, cannot be correct. The sectional maps of al­Idrisi read Kunjdih. Cf. Minorsky, Hudud, p. 119.


Now Sayram.


Talas. Cf. Minorsky, Hudud, p. 358.


They are possibly different from the Khalaj (p. 136, above), but, in spite of this passage, they may be identical with the Kharlukh (p. 103, n. 98 to this chapter, and p. 138, above).


O. J. Tallgren (Tuulio), Studia Orientalia, VI3 (1936), 170, suggests an identification of Qufaya with Ptolemy's Ripaia.


Though there are many small Montemayors in Spain, in this region and elsewhere, de Slane's identification with Montemor-o-velho in Portugal is certainly correct.


The MSS indicate t instead of n, as the first consonant of the name.


Or perhaps Perigueux? If this place and Poitou (and not Poitou and Gascogne) are referred to as mentioned before, it was probably confused by Ibn Khaldun with Burgos.


Mont Jun, apparently identical with Mons Jovis, Montjoux, St. Bernard. Cf. W. Hoenerbach, Deutschland and seine Nachbarlander nach der grossen Geographie des Idrisi, p. 38 (n. 45).


For haykal meaning "temple, effigy, large object," or "monument," see below, pp. 354, 356 ff., 2:235, 238 ff., 249, 258, 260, 859, and 3:132.


Cf. G. Levi Della Vida in Journal of the American Oriental Society, LXIII (1943), 184ff.


Bulaq corrects the text by adding: "It (the Adriatic Sea) enters from the south." De Slane has the slightly better suggestion that "south" should be understood in the sense of "west." However, a glance at the map shows why Ibn Khaldun speaks here of Venice as situated south of the Adriatic Sea (even if its location is described differently later on). No case in support of "Surrounding Sea" can be made. It should read "Mediterranean."


This refers to the Gulf of Taranto and the heel of the Italian boot.


According to Hoenerbach, op. cit., p. 31 (n. 28), al-ldrisi designates by bilad ankbarda "country of the Lombards," the Lombard principalities in Apulia, whereas anbardiya "Lombardy" means Lombardy proper.


In the older geographers, the form was an-natulus "Anatolia." Cf. Ibn Khurradidhbih, Kitab al-Masalik wa-l-mamalik, p. 107.


C and D vocalize Bursah.


Cf. M. Canard, Histoire de la dynastie des H'amdanides, I, 250 f., 262 ff.


"Mount" may be wrong, but Ibn Khaldun apparently called the mountain where the Qubaqib was supposed to originate "Mount Qubaqib." On al-Idrisi's sectional map, this mountain is called Jabal Nadhan (? ). The reading is uncertain. Cf. E. Honigmann, Byzantion, X (1953), 153.


Cf. Minorsky, Hudud, pp. 420 f.


Seen. 96 to Ibn Khaldun's Introduction, above.


Cf. W. Barthold in El, s.v. "Arran."


The Sarir have been identified with the Avars. Sarir "throne" is an abridged form for "Master of the Throne," as their ruler was known to the Arabs. Cf. Minorsky, Hudud, pp. 447 fr.


The parenthesis is a marginal note in B and C, and is found incorporated in the text of D. Cf. also the Autobiography, p. 358.The Turkish tribes are again discussed by Ibn Khaldun, following al­ldrisi, in 'Ibar, V, 569 f.


Shiyah is always indicated in the MSS. Siydh, Persian "black," would be more correct. The Persian form of Mount Shiyah, Siyah Kuh, appears be­low, p. 161.


Lake of Qaraqum?


Mugojar Mountains (see Minorsky, Uudud, p. 202, and map vn)?

Turkish kar means "snow."


Cf. Minorsky, k uddd, p. 547.


Nisfihi, as in Bulaq and in A, B, C, and D, is the correct reading and requires the above translation.


Cf. Hoenerbach, Deutschland and seine Nachharlknder . . . , p. 73.


Lewicki, La Pologne . . . , II, 179 f., 99 ff., corrects Jathuliyah to something like Macedonia (Serbia and Bulgaria), and the following Jarminiyah, which could hardly be Germany, to Rumania, Romania (see n. 531 to Ch. in).


C indicates, however, that the s is vowelless. Cf. Minorsky-Marvazi, p. 120, where reference is made to the attempted identifications with Mesemvria and with the Arabic word meaning "dam."


See n. 25 to this chapter, above. Here, the spelling is Hrqlyh. In B, this is gained by correction from Hrqlh.


See n. 26 to this chapter, above.


Cf. Minorsky, Hudud, p. 315.


They have been identified with the Finnish Moksha-Mordva. Cf. Minorsky, Hudud, pp. 462 ff; Minorsky-Marvazi, p. 109; J. Hrbek, Archiv Orientalni, XXIII (1955), 129.


Cf. A. Zeki Validi Togan, Ibn Fadlan's Reisebericht (Abhandlungen fur die Kunde des Morgenlandes, No. 24) (Leipzig, 1939), pp. 68 (n. 2), 191 H., 298 (n.1).


Jabal Shiyah Ku(ya)h. See n. 185 to this chapter, above.


Cf. Minorsky, Hudud, pp. 318 f.


Cf. Minorsky, Huddd, pp. 312 ff; Minorsky-Marvazi, pp. 102 f.


See n. 132 to this chapter, above.


A. Zeki Validi Togan, op. cit., p. 61 (n. 2), suggests that the term originally referred to the color or quality of the soil (black humus).

201 Cf. Minorsky, Huddd, pp. 300 ff.
201a Cf. above, p. 158, and below, p. 163.
202 Cf. Kitab al-Masalik wa-l-mamalih, pp. 162 ff. (text); pp. 124 ff. (tr.). Cf. also F. Rosenthal, Journal of the American Oriental Society, LXXI (1951), 138. For Ibn Khurradadhbih as a source for al-Idrisi, seen. 57 to this chapter, above.
203 The vowel of the first syllable is entirely uncertain. Raslandah has been identified with Iceland or Ireland, but is considered an unidentified part of Scotland by W. B. Stevenson, Scottish Historical Review, XXV II (1948), 202-4.
204 Cf. O. J. Tallgren (Tuulio), Studia Orientalia, VI 3 (1936), 82 f.
205 Ibn Khaldun read Faymdzak or the like (perhaps rather, Faymdzak), which suggested something Turkish to him. For the reading Finmirk = Finland, cf. Tallgren, ibid., pp. 119 ff.
206 Tavastland, Hame. Cf. Tallgren, ibid., pp. 122 ff.
207 Cf. Tallgren, ibid., pp. 124 f. Ibn Khaldun's spelling looks like that of Raslindah, in the second section.
207a The dots used in C in connection with the verb (wa-tantahi) make it certain that Russia (and not the section) is meant. However, the statement is hardly correct. On the sectional map of al-Idrisi, the "continuation of the land of the Magians" would seem to lie between Russia and the Surrounding Sea.
208 Tallgren, p. 163, compares Tyrambe, a city on the Sea of Azov, mentioned by Ptolemy V. 8.
209  Tallgren, pp. 170 ff., reads Biarma, which seems very plausible.
210 Cf. Minorsky, Hudud, pp. 217 f. No identification has been suggested. The MSS seem to have `-nnun or `-tun, but `ayn is certainly not correct.
211 Lit., "dug."
211a Grammatically, this pronoun can refer only to the land of Magog, and the second "it" to the sea. However, al-ldrisi's sectional map shows that it is the sea which is not very wide and oblong in shape and surrounds the land of Magog.
212 Cf. Qur'anic verses such as 2.164 (159); 3.190 (187); 45.3-5 (2-4).